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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Perinatal hypoxic brain damage ; Pontosubicular necrosis ; Dentate fascia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The dentate fascia of the hippocampus was studied in 25 infants with pontosubicular necrosis and in 21 control cases without hypoxic cerebral lesions. Of the control cases 19 were completely normal and 2 showed one single necrotic cell in the granule cell layer. In contrast 15 of the cases with pontosubicular necrosis showed varying degrees of neuronal karyorrhexis in the dentate fascia. The severity of these changes largely parallelled those in the subiculum but there were exceptions to this rule. It is concluded that the dentate fascia is frequently involved in pontosubicular necrosis.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 80 (1990), S. 85-87 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Addison's disease ; Adrenocortical failure ; Neuropathology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A case of untreated and rapidly progressive Addison's disease in a 23-year old woman showed selective necrosis with karyorhexis of the granule cells in the hippocampus. We suggest that this unique lesion was caused by a severe adrenocortical insufficiency. This explanation is in accordance with a recent report of selective loss of hippocampal granule cells after complete adrenalectomy in rats. No evidence of nerve cell loss was found in three cases of Addison's disease that had received cortisone treatment, which is consistent with the experimental observation that even very low levels of cortisone in adrenalectomized rats are sufficient to prevent granule cell loss.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 81 (1991), S. 479-485 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Blood-brain barrier ; Necrotic neurons ; Immunohistocliemical neuronal markers ; Axonal transport
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Preliminary observations on human autopsy material have indicated that damaged neurons may take up plasma proteins early after the injury. These observations prompted an experimental study under controlled conditions. Focal brain lesions were produced in rats by extracranial application of dry ice for 90 s. This caused an immediate disruption of the blood-brain barrier with leakage of plasma components into the tissue and sharply circumscribed areas of necrosis of the underlying cortex. Five minutes after the lesion, uptake of albumin, fibrinogen and fibronectin into damaged neurons was demonstrated by immunostains. These proteins were retained in the injured neurons until they were phagocytized 2–4 days later. In addition, normal neurons whose axons or axon collaterals passed through or terminated in the lesion were labeled. This labeling was generally weaker than in damaged neurons and no labeling of neuronal nuclei was observed in these cells in contrast to those of damaged cells. Apart from nerve cells labeled through retrograde axonal transport, no staining of normal neurons was observed. Intravenous injections of Evans blue, which binds to plasma proteins, confirmed that albumin was taken up into damaged neurons almost immediately after the injury and showed that this uptake continued for at least 20 h. It is concluded that uptake of plasma proteins into damaged neurons may serve as early (and late) markers of neuronal injury.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 84 (1992), S. 234-237 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Cerebral contusions ; Plasma proteins ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Twenty-five cases of cerebral contusions of varions age were examined immunohistochemically for neuronal uptake of albumin and fibrinogen. The neurons in the damaged areas were heavily stained in all cases, even in those of only a few minutes' survival, and they remained positive for serum proteins until they disappeared from the lesions. In hematoxylin and eosinstained sections, neuronal changes were observed from the first minutes after the lesion but they were indistinguishable from the shrunken “dark” neurons that occur as artifacts in poorly fixed material. However, in contrast to the artificially changed cells, the truely damaged ones took up serum proteins. It is concluded that staining with antisera against serum proteins may serve as early markers for neuronal injury before reliable histological changes have developed.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Carnitine/deficiency ; Dicarboxylic acids ; Diet ; Pivampicillin ; Pivmecillinam
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Long-term treatment with pivampicillin and pivmecillinam for 6–24 months in five adults and one child reduced the total serum carnitine concentration to 3.7–14 μmol/l (reference value: 25–66 μmol/l). Muscle carnitine was reduced to 0.3–0.7μmol/g wet weight (reference value: 3–5μmol/g) in two cases. All patients had muscle symptoms with weakness, asthenia and pains. One showed signs of carnitine depletion in the liver with increased secretion of dicarboxylic acids (C6, C8, C10) in urine and limited ketone body formation during prolonged fasting. Serum carnitine increased slowly after cessation of therapy and reached normal concentrations after 6–12 months. All symptoms caused by carnitine depletion disappeared. This was achieved on a normal diet without carnitine supplementation.
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