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  • 1990-1994  (2)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: HIV ; AIDS ; IVDU
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In order to investigate the prevalence of HIV infection among Greek intravenous drug users (IVDU), its trend during years recent and possible risk factors, we studied 893 inmates recently admitted to the main prisons of Greece from 1986 to 1989. Screening and counselling was offered to all of them. The acceptance rate was 98%. One thousand one hundred and two IVDUs voluntarily attending the AIDS Reference Centre in Athens for counselling and screening were also included in the study. Anti-HIV were determined by commercially available radioimmunoassays, and positive results were confirmed by Western Blot. Our results showed that the prevalence of HIV infection remained very low in both groups during the study period; it was similar to the prevalence found (2.1%) in stored sera drawn in 1982 from imprisoned IVDU. In the non-prisoner group, the prevalence among those who reported needle/syringe sharing (2.6%) was similar to that among those who denied sharing (2.5%). This lack of difference may be due to the fact that sharing is only an occasional practice and that cleaning of the injection equipment is common. We conclude that the prevalence of anti-HIV in IVDU in Greece is considerably lower than that in neighbouring countries and that it has remained stable during the last eight years. Further studies are necessary to identify behavioural and other risk factors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7225
    Keywords: Case-control study ; diet ; Greece ; pancreatic cancer ; nutrient intake
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In a hospital-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer conducted in Athens (1991–92), 181 patients with histologically confirmed cancer of the exocrine pancreas were compared with hospital patient controls and hospital visitor controls, individually matched to the cases by hospital, age, gender, and interviewer in a 1:1:1 ratio. All interviews were conducted in person in the respective hospitals. Diet was ascertained through a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Nutrient intakes for individuals were estimated by multiplying the nutrient content of a selected typical portion-size for each specified food-item by the frequency that the food was used per month, and summing these estimates for all food items. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression, controlling for tobacco smoking and total energy intake as well as for mutual confounding influences among nutrients. Adjusted odds ratios (rate ratios) for pancreatic cancer, associated with particular nutritional variables, were expressed per increments approximately equal to the standard deviations of (the residual of) the respective nutrients, on a daily basis. The adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CI) compared with other patient and visitor controls respectively, were: for polyunsaturated fat, OR=1.32 (CI=1.07−1.63) and 1.21 (CI=0.98−1.49); and for crude fibre, OR=0.80 (CI=0.64−1.00) and 0.65 (CI=0.50−0.86). No substantial, statistically significant or consistent, independent associations were noted for total energy, total protein, total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, dietary cholesterol, total carbohydrates, sucrose, vitamin C, vitamin A, riboflavin, or calcium.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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