Key words Butyltin compound
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract The in vivo induction of hepatotoxicity, as evaluated by the activity of ornithine carbamyl transferase in serum, was investigated in mice administered orally with the following three butyltin compounds: tributyltin chloride (TBTC), dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC) and monobutyltin trichloride (MBTC). The minimal concentrations of TBTC and DBTC that caused hepatotoxicity at 24 h after oral administration were 180 μmol and 60 μmol/kg, respectively, while MBTC did not induce liver injury even at 7000 μmol/kg. Additionally, when the administered doses were equivalent (180 μmol/kg), a time course (3–96 h) study revealed that the hepatotoxicity of TBTC and DBTC appeared at 24 and 12 h, respectively, but that MBTC showed no hepatotoxicity even at 96 h. The amounts of Sn excreted into urine for 4 days were 1.5 fold greater with TBTC than with DBTC treatment and were lowest in MBTC group. Similarly, the total liver Sn content was 2- to 5-fold greater in the TBTC group than in the DBTC group whereas the liver Sn content in the MBTC treatment showed the lowest value throughout the 3- to 96-h period. Thus, the non-hepatotoxicity of MBTC may be due either to low absorption through the digestive tract of mice or to the low levels of Sn in liver; however, the level of Sn in liver was not associated with the induction of hepatotoxicity by TBTC and DBTC. The analysis of metabolites of TBTC (180 μmol/kg) and DBTC (60 μmol/kg) at equivalent hepatotoxicity showed that the main tin compounds in the liver after the administration of TBTC were dibutyltin and monobutyltin as well as inorganic tin compounds, while most (〉78%) of the total tin compounds in the liver of mice treated with DBTC was in the form of dibutyltin. In addition, the levels of monobutyltin and inorganic tin compounds in the livers of mice treated with TBTC were greater than those with DBTC, but the levels of dibutyltin did not differ significantly between TBTC and DBTC. The levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and hepatic glutathione (GSH) content in the liver showed a transitory increase after the administration of MBTC and TBTC, respectively. These results suggest that DBTC is more hepatotoxic than TBTC, and that dibutyltin inside the cells may be the main form of tin which is responsible for induction of hepatotoxicity following in vivo administration of TBTC and DBTC. The generation of free radical species, as evaluated by LPO and GSH levels, may not be associated with the hepatotoxicity caused by butyltin compounds.
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