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  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-7347
    Keywords: Transcutaneous electrical stimulation ; Patello-femoral symptoms ; Vastus medialis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Abstract Thirty patients with unilateral patello-femoral symptoms and a hypotrophic vastus medialis muscle were treated with transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the vastus medialis obliquus and stretching of the lateral thigh muscles twice daily for 10 weeks. Before and after treatment the position of the patella at fixed knee flexion angles and the area of the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles were studied by computed tomography. Isokinetic quadriceps torque was registered with a Cybex II Dynamometer. An evaluation with a functional knee score was carried out. The healthy contralateral leg served as control in all the examinations. Clinically two-thirds of the patients had improved after 10 weeks of treatment and this improvement remained at follow-up 3.5 years later. The area of the vastus medialis and the quadriceps torque of the treated leg increased significantly, while the area of the vastus lateralis and the position of patella did not change. We conclude that transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation of the vastus medialis and stretching of the lateral thigh muscles might be of benefit in patients with patello-femoral symptoms and a hypotrophic vastus medialis. An improvement after 10 weeks of treatment seems to predict a good long-term result.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-7347
    Keywords: Patello-femoral pain ; Isokinetic ; Concentric ; Eccentric ; Training
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Abstract The aims of the present investigation were (a) to evaluate the effect of eccentric quadriceps training in patients with unilateral patellofemoral pain and (b) to compare the effect of eccentric and concentric quadriceps training in patients with bilateral patellofemoral pain. Fifteen patients (9 male and 6 female, aged 17–36 years with a mean of 27.5 years) participated in this study. Nine patients had unilateral pain and trained their painful leg eccentrically, while six had bilateral pain and trained one leg eccentrically and the other concentrically. Quadriceps muscle training was performed on a Kin-Com dynamometer at 90°/s and 120°/s angular velocity twice a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the treatment period the thigh muscle torques were measured on the Kin-Com dynamometer at 60°/s, 90°/s, 120°/s and 180°/s for quadriceps and at 60°/s and 180°/s for hamstrings. Nine controls, matched for gender and age with the group with unilateral pain, were tested in the same way on the Kin-Com dynamometer. For functional evaluation a knee score was calculated before training, after 8 weeks of training and at a mean of 3.4 years after completion of the training. After 8 weeks of training and at follow-up times of 1 and 3.4 years the patients were also questioned regarding whether or not they felt improvement from the training programme. To determine the degree of knee pain during the training Borg's pain scale was used. The results showed that, compared with the controls, the patients had a significantly lower knee extensor torque in their painful leg at all velocities measured. The greatest difference was found during eccentric actions. However, in comparison with the controls there were no significant differences in eccent ic and concentric knee flexor torques. After training there was a significant increase particularly in eccentric but also in concentric torque of the knee extensor in the painful leg of the eccentrically trained group. Of the six patients in the bilateral training group there were five who increased their concentric knee extensor torque and three who increased their eccentric torque. There were no significant differences in concentric and eccentric knee flexor torques before and after training in either of the legs in both training groups. The hamstring/quadriceps ratio was significantly higher in the patients' painful leg before training. However, due to increased quadriceps strength the hamstring/quadriceps ratio dropped after training. Patients in both groups reported no pain or mild pain during the training sessions. The eccentrically trained group was significantly improved both after 8 weeks of treatment and at follow-up 3.4 years later as evaluated using the knee score. The bilaterally trained group was significantly improved 3.4 years after completion of the training programme as evaluated using the knee score.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-7347
    Keywords: Patellofemoral pain ; Taping ; Isokinetic ; Concentric ; Eccentric ; EMG
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Abstract The acute effect of patella taping on torque and electromyographic (EMG) activity in maximal voluntary concentric and eccentric action of the knee extensor and flexor muscles in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome was studied in 48 patients (62 knees). The patients (28 female, 20 male) were tested concentrically and eccentrically on a Kin-Com dynamometer with simultaneous EMG recording with the patella untaped and medially or laterally taped. Patients with clinically normal patellar mobility did not improve their quadriceps performance by taping of the patella: after medial taping they decreased theur muscle torque during concentric work at 60°/s (P〈0.05) and eccentric work at 180°/s (P〈0.05). After lateral taping they decreased their muscle torque during concentric work at 60°/s (P〈0.01), and 180°/s (P〈0.05) and eccentric work at both 60°/s (P〈 0.01) and 180°/s (P〈 0.05). Moreover, these patients also decreased their agonist EMG activity during concentric work at 60°/s (P〈0.05) and 180°/s (P〈0.05) and their antagonist EMG activity during eccentric work at 60°/s (P〈0.01). Patients with a clinical lateral patellar hypermobility increased their knee extensor torque after medial taping at 60°/s during both eccentric work (P〈0.01) and concentric work (P〈0.05). The greatest improvement in quadriceps performance, however, was in patients with a clinical medial patellar hypermobility. They increased their knee extensor torque after lateral taping during eccentric work at both 60°/s (P〈0.001) and 180°/s (P〈0.001) and during concentric work at 60°/s (P〈0.001). They also increased agonist EMG activity during eccentric work at both 60°/s (P〈0.01) and 180°/s (P〈0.001) and during concentric work at 180°/s (P〈0.05). Patients with both lateral and medial patellar hypermobility increased their knee extensor torque by patellar taping in either direction; after medial taping there was an increase during eccentric work at both 60°/s (P〈0.01) and 180°/s (P〈0.05) and after lateral taping they also showed an increase during eccentric work at 60°/s (P〈0.01). There was a slight decrease in knee flexor torque with either medial or lateral taping in comparison with no taping. Furthermore, there was higher antagonist EMG activity during hamstring measurements when the patella was either medially or laterally taped as opposed to untaped. In all four groups of patients, except for the group with lateral and medial hypermobility, there was a highly significant correlation between patients' own evaluation of the taping and their patellar mobility according to the clinical examination.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1433-7347
    Keywords: Patellofemoral pain ; Personality ; Depression ; Karolinska Scales of Personality ; Rorschach inkblot method
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: Abstract Personality characteristics in patients with long-term patellofemoral pain were compared to those of matched controls and other groups both of non-patients and of psychiatric outpatients with character disorders. Personality was described using the self-administered dependency and alexithymia scales, the Karolinska Scales of Personality and the Rorschach inkblot method. The hypothesis was that the patellofemoral pain patients would have higher levels of anxiety, depression, helplessness, aggression and alexithymic characteristics than the matched controls. There were only a few significant differences between the knee patients and the matched controls. The Rorschach measures suggested significantly greater depression, hostility and passive attitude in the knee patients as compared to the reference data. There were no indications of the hypothesised alexithymic characteristics in the knee patients. If patellofemoral pain patients do not improve as expected, referral to a pain clinic with psychological expertise could be considered.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a low grade malignant neoplasm which shows invasive growth and often occurs in immunosuppressed patients with the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS; epidemic KS). It is also found in elderly men where it is usually limited to the skin (classic KS). The present study investigated the chemotaxis and invasive migration of epidemic KS cells in vitro and compared them to cells grown from classic KS lesions and to fibroblasts. Epidemic KS cells demonstrated invasive migration through reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel) as well as through interstitial connective tissue (collagen I) in early passages, whereas fibroblasts did not invade either barrier. Epidemic KS cells in late passages did not show any invasive migration. Following pretreatment with tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) there was no enhanced migration through the Matrigel and collagen I for epidemic KS cells, whereas classic KS cells showed an increased migration through the type I collagen barrier.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Measurements of the magnetic fluctuations, termed spin-density-wave (SDW) paramagnons, in the nearly antiferromagnetic alloy Cr+5 at.% V are extended up in energy to about 80 meV. These fluctuating spin–spin correlations occur at incommensurate positions, corresponding to the SDW wave vector Q. Their characteristic energy is at least an order of magnitude larger than that of the magnetic fluctuations seen in the paramagnetic phase of pure Cr, but their intensity is more than two orders of magnitude smaller. We find that the dynamic susceptibility decreases by about 50% between temperature T=10 and 300 K.
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