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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Three monoclonal antibodies, LM5, F2 and F39 raised to chicken fast skeletal muscle myosin, specific for myosin heavy chain (MHC) subunit, were used to study the composition and distribution of this protein in some vertebrate skeletal muscles. These antibodies in immunohistochemical investigations did not react with the majority of the type I fibres in most muscles. Antibodies LM5 and F39 stained all the type II fibres in all the adult chicken skeletal muscles studied. Antibody F2 also stained all the type II fibres in most chicken skeletal muscles tested except in gastrocnemius in which a proportion of both the type IIA and IIB fibres either did not stain or stained only weakly. Antibody F2 unlike LM5 and F39 stained most of the type IIIB fibres in anterior latissimus dorsi (ALD) and IB fibres in red strip of chicken Pectoralis muscle. Antibodies LM5 and F2 in the rat diaphragm reacted with all the type IIA and IIB fibres, while antibody F39 stained only the type IIB fibres darkly with most IIA fibres being either not stained or only weakly stained. In the rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles, antibody LM5 stained all the IIA and IIB fibres. Antibody F2 in these muscles stained all the type IIA fibres but only a proportion of the IIB fibres. The remaining IIB fibres were either unstained or only weakly positive. Antibody F39 in rat EDL and TA muscles did not only distinguish subgroups of IIB fibres (dark, intermediate and negative or very weak) but also of the IIA fibres. These three antibodies used together therefore detected a great deal of heterogeneity in the myosin heavy chain composition and muscle fibre types of several skeletal muscles.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Parker's rat coronavirus (PRC) is a naturally-occurring viral infection of the laboratory rat. On the first passage, ATCC strain 8190 of PRC replicated in L-2 cells. Using the tenth passage of PRC in L-2 cells, the characteristics of the virus were compared with previous studies of sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) replicated in L-2 cells. Based on light and immunofluorescence microscopic examination of control and inoculated cell cultures, PRC-associated CPE was frequently confined primarily to individual cells, and there were relatively few syncytial giant cells. Maximum titers were recovered at 36h post inoculation (pi). Infectious virus was demonstrated at pH values ranging from 6.0 to 9.0 and a pH of 7.5 was determined to produce the highest titers of PRC. The optimum temperature for viral replication was 33°C. Up to 15 passages of PRC in L-929 cells failed to produce detectable virus. However, after adaptation in L-2 cells (20th passage), PRC replicated to high titers in L-929 cells. Previously, in vitro studies of rat coronaviruses have been hampered by the lack of an identified continuous cell line to replicate these viruses in the laboratory. L-2 cells represent a readily-available continuous cell line that can support the replication of relatively high titers of PRC.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) and Parker's rat coronavirus (PRC) are two recognized viral strains which cause spontaneous disease in the laboratory rat. Currently there is no recognized practical procedure which will accurately differentiate infections with these strains. Using SDAV- and PRC-infected L-2 cells as the source of antigen, and sera from rats collected post inoculation with either of these viral strains, the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) procedure was used to determine whether antibody titers could be used to differentiate infections from the homologous and heterologous virus. There was no detectable difference in the sensitivity or specificity of these systems in detecting antibody to the homologous or heterologous virus. Thus there was no evidence that SDAV- and PRC-infected cells would serve to differentiate antibody to the homologous virus using the IFA technique. In addition, antibody titers were similar when mouse hepatitis virus (MHV)-infected cells were used as the source of antigen for the IFA technique. However, using MHV or SDAV-infected cells as the source of antigen, there was a significant difference in antibody titers to the homologous virus detected using the immunoenzyme technique.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Restriction fragment length polymorphism ; CCN ; Genetic mapping ; Triticum aestivum ; Heterodera avenae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The cereal cyst nematode (CCN) (Heterodera avenae Woll.) is an economically damaging pest of wheat in many of the worlds cereal growing areas. The development of CCN-resistant cultivars may be accelerated by the use of molecular markers. The Cre gene of the wheat line “AUS 10894” confers resistance to CCN. Using a pair of near-isogenic lines (NILs) that should differ only in a small chromosome segment containing the Cre locus, we screened 58 group-2 probes and found two (Tag605 and CDO588) that detect polymorphism between the NILs. Nulli-tetrasomic and ditelosomic lines confirmed that the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers identified were derived from the long arm of wheat chromosome 2. Crosses between “AUS 10894” and “Spear” and the NIL “AP” and its recurrent parent “Prins” were used to produce F2 populations that gave the expected 3∶1 segregation ratio for the resistance gene. Linkage analysis identified two RFLP markers flanking the resistance gene. Xglk605 and Xcdo588 mapped 7.3 cM (LOD=6.0) and 8.4 cM (LOD=6.7), respectively, from the Cre locus.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Brain ; retina ; pericytes ; glucose ; growth rates ; diabetic serum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Within the central nervous system, pericyte degeneration in diabetes mellitus occurs only in the retinal microcirculation and is not seen in the brain. This study sought to elucidate differences between bovine retinal and brain pericytes. When pairs of retinal and brain pericytes from individual calves were cultured in vitro, the morphological organisation of early post-confluent retinal pericyte cultures was consistently different from that of brain pericyte cultures. When retinal and brain pericyte cultures were grown to second passage in high or normal glucose medium supplemented with fetal calf serum, brain pericyte cultures grew significantly faster than retinal pericytes in either medium (p〈0.0001). Brain pericytes thus appeared to grow intrinsically faster than retinal pericytes and this effect was largely independent of glucose concentration. Brain pericytes also grew faster than retinal pericytes in high glucose medium containing human diabetic or control serum (p〈0.002). The proliferative effect of serum from diabetic patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy on pericytes grown in high glucose medium was not significantly different from that of control serum. Both brain and retinal pericytes showed variation in their ability to replicate in high concentrations of glucose. The selectivity of pericyte degeneration to the retinal circulation does not appear to be due to changes in the mitogenic activity of diabetic serum for retinal pericytes, but may relate to the intrinsic relative inability of the retinal pericyte to reproliferate in response to the metabolic injury of diabetes mellitus.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-908X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The stereoselective disposition of ibuprofen was studied in male New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits (n=4) following an infusion (0.16 mg/kg/min) to steady-state of each of the enantiomers of ibuprofen with one week between treatments. The mean (±SEM) steady-state clearances of (R)-ibuprofen (15.5±1.1 ml/min/kg) and (S)-ibuprofen (13.6±1.9 ml/min/kg) were not significantly different from each other (p〉0.05) and exceeded the plasma clearance of indocyanine green (4.3±0.4 ml/min/kg) in a separate group of rabbits (n=6). When the infusion rate of the enantiomers was doubled there was a significant decrease in the mean clearance of both (R)-ibuprofen (28%;p〈0.018) and (S)-ibuprofen (24%;p〈0.003). There was enantiospecific chiral inversion of (R)-ibuprofen to (S)-ibuprofen (fi=0.30±0.07) as has been observed in all species so far studied for this 2-arylpropionic acid. The metabolic capacity for elimination of ibuprofen enantiomers was much greater than reported for either fenoprofen or ketoprofen and suggests that the clearance of ibuprofen enantiomers may be flow dependent in this species.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The ability of the close analogue element rhenium to act as a satisfactory non-isotopic yield monitor for the analysis of99Tc in environmental materials is explored and its performance critically evaluated in a new radioanalytical method designed specifically for use with rhenium as both carrier and yield monitor. The advantages and limitations of rhenium for this purpose are compared with isotopic tracers such as99mTc,97mTc and95mTc. When employed in a well designed analytical scheme, rhenium, which has received only limited consideration in the past, is shown to be a cheap, reliable alternative to isotopic tracers.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1600-0765
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Stimulus transmission across dentine, in conditions such as dentine hypersensitivity, is considered to occur via a hydrodynamic mechanism. This fluid flow in dentine may then induce a mechanoreceptor response in pulpal nerves. However, when fluid flows through a porous structure electrical potentials are also generated. The aim of this tudy was to develop a reproducible model system to measure streaming potential across dentine and hydroxyapatite and determine the influence of pressure. Using an acrylic cell, with silver electrodes, streaming potentials were recorded across dimensionally standardized dentine and hydroxyapatite specimens, over a pressure range of 1–6 atmospheres. Streaming potentials were found to be directly proportional to pressure and dependent on the electrical conductivity of the saline used in the cell. The results confirm the limited existing data on streaming potentials across dentine and indicate that at these low pressures excitation of pulpal nerves would not occur. However, if as may be the case, stimuli applied to dentine create very high pressures, the resultant potentials generated could indeed evoke a neural response. The model system is worthy of further use to study this phenomenon and the factors which may influence it.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 61 (1992), S. 405-407 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Highly oriented InAs films have been grown on natural diamond by MBE. InAs growths were carried out on diamond and on lattice-matched III–V substrates at 250, 300, and 470 °C. The highest quality films (smoothest surface and highest degree of crystallinity) were obtained at 300 °C. X-ray diffraction data indicate that the films have a strong [111] surface normal orientation. RHEED data indicate that the InAs forms a polyvariant thin film with alignment parallel to the interface of one of the 〈110〉InAs directions with one of the 〈110〉diamond directions.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Metallic β-WP2 films have been formed on InP by reacting amorphous peroxopolytungstic acid (APA) films on InP in a PH3/H2 ambient at 600 °C. The resulting metallic film exhibits a low sheet resistance (310 μΩ cm) and preliminary measurements suggest the contact on n-InP is ohmic. By using the unreacted peroxopolytungstic acid films as a negative inorganic photoresist, patterned β-WP2 metallic films on InP have been made without the use of a separate metal film etching step. The reacted metallic films show a smooth, abrupt metal/semiconductor interface. The high temperature stability of β-WP2 on InP suggests that this material may be useful as a refractory contact to InP.
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