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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-5195
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Du mois de Mars 1991 au mois de Février 1992 le taux sérique de la C-réactive protéine (CRP) a été mesuré de façon prospective pendant trois semaines chez 57 patients consécutifs atteints de fractures des os longs ainsi que chez 11 patients opérés pour la première fois d'arthroplastie de la hanche ou du genou. On a utilisé pour mesurer la CRP une analyse semi-quantitative (méthode de floculation capillaire). Les chiffres les plus élevés sont en général enregistrés 2 ou 3 jours après le traumatisme ou l'opération et la CRP est quasiment normalisée en trois semaines. Chez les patients fracturés l'amplitude de la CRP varie selon le type de traitement: les valeurs les plus basses s'observent chez les patients traités orthopédiquement plutôt que chez ceux qui sont opérés, mais la courbe de la CRP est la même quel que soit le traitement. La CRP est aussi influencée par la sévérité du traumatisme (ouvert ou fermé) chez les sujets traités orthopédiquement, mais non chez ceux qui sont opérés. Chez les malades traités par arthroplastie le type de réponse de la CRP est semblable à celui des patients opérés pour fracture. La connaissance de l'évolution naturelle des taux de CRP après fracture et après arthroplastie peut aider au diagnostic des complications post-traumatiques et post-opératoires, et tout particulièrement des infections.
    Notes: Summary Between March 1991 and February 1992 serial serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured prospectively for three weeks in 57 consecutive patients with fractures of long bones, and also in 11 patients who had undergone primary total hip or knee arthroplasty. A semi-quantitative capillary floculation method was used for measuring the CRP level. The highest values were usually recorded 2–3 days after trauma or operation, and the CRP was nearly normal by three weeks. In the patients with long bone fractures the amplitude of CRP response was affected by the type of treatment. Lower values were observed in those patients treated conservatively than in those who underwent operation, but the profile of CRP response was similar, regardless of the type of treatment. The CRP response was also affected by the severity of the trauma in conservatively treated patients, but in those who underwent operation the CRP response was similar, regardless of the severity of the injury. In patients with primary total hip or knee arthroplasty the pattern of CRP response after operation was similar to that in the patients with long bone fractures who underwent surgical treatment. Awareness of the natural course of the CRP response after fracture and arthroplasty may help in the diagnosis of early post-traumatic and postoperative complications, especially infections.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Child's nervous system 10 (1994), S. 99-103 
    ISSN: 1433-0350
    Keywords: Distal double-slit valves ; Infection ; Obstruction ; Overdrainage ; Shunt ; Shunt survival
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Shunts with distal slit valves have been in use for almost three decades for children with hydrocephalus. Drawbacks of this device include shunt obstruction, infection and overdrainage. Onepiece shunts have been used widely for ventriculoperitoneal insertion because they are easy to place, do not need manipulation of connecting parts during surgery and rarely disconnect. Disadvantages of these shunts, however, include a relatively higher risk of distal obstruction than with the open-ended peritoneal tube and a tendency for overdrainage. With these disadvantages in mind, we hypothesized that using double-distal-slit valves could increase the survival rate of the shunt. For the past 2 years we have been using a one-piece shunt with double-distal-slit valves and an elliptical reservoir under a strict protocol. The study showed the following. (1) Among the children operated on 30.3% required shunt revisions (0.9 revisions per patient). Children with intraventricular hemorrhage-posthermorrhagic hydrocephalus had a three times higher risk of shunt revision than children with posttraumatic hydrocephalus (55.4% vs 18.8%). (2) The so-called slit-ventricle syndrome was observed in only 4 children (8.5%), who subsequently required surgical attention. Most of the children with other forms of the overdrainage phenomenon continued to do well without clinical problems. (3) Of the 155 children, 7 (4.5%) experienced infections after the initial shunt installation. (4) Of the 136 shunt revisions, 90.4% (123 procedures) were related to obstruction. Distal obstruction (47.1%) was more frequent than proximal obstruction (36.6%). (5) In 8 children, the shunt was still working through the proximal set of valves when the distal set of valves was completely obstructed. Although a perfect shunt has not yet been developed, the shunt with a double-distal-slit valve is effective in the treatment of children with hydrocephalus and could increase shunt survival time.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-5195
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Une complication majeure du traitement opératoire des fractures intertrochantériennes et particulièrement des fractures instables est l'échec de fixation. Une étude de 76 fractures intertrochantériennes consécutives, traitées du 1er mars 1989 au 28 février 1991, a été réalisée. Toutes les fractures ont été réduites anatomiquement et fixées par une vis à compression de 135°. Il y a eu deux cas de pénétration intra-articulaire de la vis (3,2%) et huit cas de glissement excessif (12,9%). Cette complication n'a été observée que dans les fractures instables et la fréquence du glissement excessif était significativement plus élevée chez les malades âgés et dans les cas où le fragment distal était déplacé en dedans et en avant du fragment proximal. L'instabilité de la fracture, l'âge du malade et le type de déplacement peuvent être considérés comme les causes principales du glissement excessif.
    Notes: Summary A retrospective study of 76 intertrochanteric fractures was undertaken to evaluate the failures of fixation. In every case anatomical reduction was attempted, and 135° sliding compression screws and plates were used for fixation. In 2 cases, the screw penetrated into the joint and there were 8 cases where there was excessive sliding of the implant. These complications were only found in unstable fractures. They occurred most frequently in elderly patients, and when the distal fragment was displaced medially and anteriorly.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-9120
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 76 (1994), S. 2868-2871 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The sequential tunneling of electrons through Schottky diodes with GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs) is reported. Two series of tunneling structures were observed in low-temperature current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in 200-A(ring)-period MQWs. The oscillations in the conductance (G) were found to be persistent from 5 K up to 200 K. S-shape features in the current-voltage characteristics similar to those observed from double-barrier resonant tunneling structures were observed at low temperature in the MQW structures. The electron tunneling process through the MQW structures is discussed in terms of the creation and propagation of high-field domains as a function of the applied bias.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Epitaxial Ba1−xSrxTiO3(BST)/YBa2Cu3O7−x heterostructures with superior electrical and dielectric properties have been fabricated by plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (PE-MOCVD). Data of x-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy showed that 〈100〉 oriented Ba1−xSrxTiO3 layers were epitaxially deposited on epitaxial (001) YBa2Cu3O7−x layers. The leakage current density through the Ba1−xSrxTiO3 films was about 10−7 A/cm2 at 2 V (about 2×105 V/cm) operation. Moreover, the results of capacitance-temperature measurements showed that the PE-MOCVD Ba1−xSrxTiO3 films had Curie temperatures of about 30 °C and a peak dielectric constant of 600 at zero bias voltage. The Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and x-ray diffraction results showed that the BST film composition was controlled between Ba0.75Sr0.25TiO3 and Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3. The structural and electrical properties of the Ba1−xSrxTiO3/YBa2Cu3O7−x heterostructure indicated that conductive oxide materials with close lattice to Ba1−xSrxTiO3 can be good candidates for the bottom electrode.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1741-0444
    Keywords: Computer-aided design optimisation ; LINAC ; stereotactic radiosurgery ; three-dimensional dose calculation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The work presented in the paper addresses a method for obtaining the optimal dose distribution for LINAC-based stereotactic radiosurgery. As many targets have nonspherical or irregular shapes and three-dimensional dose calculations included in dose optimisation, long computation times are required to determine the optimum isocentre separation and collimator sizes to shape the irregular target using the multiple-isocentre approach, by trial-and-error types of method. The simple approach, using a computer-aided design optimisation technique and a fast approximate dose model, has been developed to find the optimum isocentre positions and collimator sizes quickly and automatically. A spherical dose model has been developed to represent the dose for a standard arc system with a single isocentre. The implementation of computer-aided design algorithms with the spherical dose model and their application to several cases are discussed. It is shown that the spherical dose model gives dose distribution similar to that of the exact dose model, which makes this simple dose model more efficient, with computer-aided design optimisation, in finding optimum isocentre positions and collimator sizes used in stereotactic radiosurgery.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 73 (1993), S. 5671-5673 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The magnetic ordering in the series of solid solutions Fe3−xMnxSi having the D03 structure has been extensively studied at low fields over a wide range of temperatures. The present study reports observations of high-field-induced transitions in the low temperature range below the reordering temperature TR for members of the series falling within the concentration range 1.6≤x≤1.8. These alloys appear antiferromagnetic in low fields below TR but application of a field within the range up to 12 T results in a transition to an apparently ferromagnetic state. The transition occurs at all temperatures below TR and occurs reversibly except at the lowest temperatures where the hysteresis may be ∼0.5 T. The variation of the critical field with temperature follows an approximately quadratic form. Above TR Arrott plots suggest for the alloy with x=1.70 that a narrow ferromagnetic regime exists over the range 65≤T≤85 K above which the material is paramagnetic. For the alloy with x=1.75 however the Arrott plots suggest a direct conversion to paramagnetism at the reordering temperature TR indicating a possible phase diagram similar to that of Au2Mn. A discussion is given in terms of a model previously proposed to explain the low-field behavior.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We have studied the mechanisms of interface trap (Nit) formation in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices during isochronal annealing after irradiation at 78 K. Two distinct Nit formation processes are observed at 120 and 250 K. After irradiation but before annealing, some samples were injected with electrons to remove all the radiation-induced positive oxide charges. In these samples, the Nit formation process at 250 K is nearly eliminated, in agreement with previous reports, but the lower-temperature 120 K process increases substantially. Results are explained using a hydrogen model. We also discuss the use of substrate hot-electron injection, which is used to annihilate the radiation-induced positive charge, in some detail.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We report the correlation of photoluminescence (PL), infrared intersubband absorption, and double crystal x-ray diffraction (DCXRD) data for a p-doped InGaAs/AlGaAs strained multi- ple-quantum-well structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy. A PL doublet at 1.476 and 1.563 eV involves two confined holes states and their 87 meV separation is in good agreement with the measured intersubband absorption of about 14.5 μm (85 meV). Furthermore, when the well width obtained from DCXRD measurement is included excellent agreement with an envelope function calculation is found for the energy levels determined by PL and intersubband absorption energy.
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