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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract In international legislation concerning trace elements in food, in the environment or in occupational health most regulations are based on the total element contents, and are frequently given as maximum limits or guideline levels. In contrast, only few regulations pay attention to the molecular species in which the elements are bound. The international legislation concerning contaminants in food is presently being established in the Codex Alimentarius, which is an independent United Nations organisation under the joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. Development of the Codex General Standard for Contaminants and Toxins in Food provides the framework for future international legislation on metals as contaminants in food. For certain food additives, which include some essential minerals, speciation is an integral part of the set of specification criteria, because only certain defined chemical compounds are permitted as sources of the essential element. The development of more species-specific analytical and toxicological data, and improved communication with legislators will be necessary before it will become possible to lay down species-specific regulations in all the cases where the specialised scientist will consider it reasonable.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2277
    Keywords: Key words Liver transplantation ; Hepatitis C
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The optimal immunosuppressive regimen in patients transplanted for hepatitis C (HCV) is still under discussion. High immunosuppression may promote viral replication and recurrent graft hepatitis. But acute and chronic rejection frequently seen in conjunction with HCV recurrence may require some rescue therapy. One hundred and thirty-seven patients transplanted for HCV cirrhosis, who were HCV-RNA positive prior to transplantation, were analyzed. Seventy-nine patients received CSA-based immunosuppression and 58 patients FK506-based immunosuppression. One-month patient survival was 100 % in both groups. Three month and 1-year survival rates and the cumulative 1–5-year patient survival was similar in CsA-treated [67/79 (84.8 %)] and FK506-treated patients [50/58 (86.2 %)]. Retransplantations for HCV recurrence were performed in 5.1 % of CsA-treated patients and 6.9 % of FK506-treated patients; it was successful in 50 % and 75 % of patients, respectively. Conversion from CsA to FK506 and vice versa was high with 25 out of 79 patients (31.6 %) converting in the CsA group and 8 out of 58 patients (13.8 %) converting in the FK506 group. Conversion to FK506 was performed due to acute and chronic rejection and to CsA because of toxicity and HCV recurrence. In both groups, 25 % of converted patients died. Five patients of the CsA group and 9 of the FK506 group received OKT3; more than one-third of each group died. Five patients in the CsA group and 6 in the FK506 group received mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for HCV recurrence or acute and chronic rejection in conjunction with HCV recurrence. All patients of this critical group are alive with good graft function. In conclusion, survival rates of HCV patients were similar to those seen for other indications. Conversion from CsA to FK506 and vice versa was high and reflects a critical group concerning patient survival. OKT3 treatment should be avoided. A promising therapeutic option for critical patients experiencing acute or chronic rejection in conjunction with HCV recurrence may be treatment with MMF.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1619-1560
    Keywords: sweat gland ; substance P ; vasoactive intestinal polypeptide ; diabetic neuropathy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and substance P (SP) immunoreactivity are reduced in the cutaneous nerves of diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. The functional significance of this finding was studied by measuring the forearm sweat response to intradermal methacholine and the effect of coadministration of VIP and SP in six normal subjects, and in six diabetic patients with neuropathy and eight without. Flare responses to the two peptides were also measured. Methacholine-induced sweat output was significantly greater in neuropathic patients compared with the other groups (p 〈 0.05), suggesting upper limb denervation supersensitivity. VIP and SP alone did not evoke sweating in any subject. Injection of VIP or SP reduced methacholine-induced sweating to a similar degree in all groups, except that the reduction was smaller in the nonneuropathic group than in the others (p = 0.028 versus normal subjects, p = 0.014 versus neuropathic diabetic patients). Flare responses to the peptides were markedly reduced in the neuropathic patients compared with the other groups (p 〈 0.01). In neuropathic patients, increased sweat responses and decreased flare coexist with diminished neurophysiological measurements; cutaneous sweating and flare responses provide valuable additional information to conventional methods of neurological assessment in diabetic neuropathy.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillan Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 394 (1998), S. 331-332 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The Arctic ecosystem is showing increasing evidence of contamination by persistent, toxic substances, including metals such as mercury, that accumulate in organisms. In January 1995, we began continuous surface-level measurements of total gaseous mercury in the air at Alert, Northwest ...
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 62 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The rigor mortis development of large Atlantic salmon was evaluated at a commercial plant using a sensory method, a mechanical rigorometer and low-frequency vibrations. The fish were classified according to rigor state using a neural network. Assessments were done with fish subjected to two different levels of handling stress prior to slaughter. White muscle high-energy phosphates and inosine monophosphate were used as indices of stress showing that handling stress may be considerable during commercial slaughter. Results indicate rigor assessment should be nondestructive and classificaton of rigor state was possible using a lowfrequency vibration method combined with a neural network.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The degradation of a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) bound to surface IgM (sIgM) was studied in three human Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines. The panel included MoAb that recognize several distinct epitopes associated with the F(cμ)5 domain, the cμ2 domain, and δ or λ light chains. The amount of degraded MoAb and the rate of their degradation varied considerably between the various antibodies. Properties of MoAb such as avidity or ability to cross-link sIgM did not significantly influence their degradation. The most consistent correlation between rate of degradation and MoAb used was the location of the epitope recognized by the individual MoAb. Thus, 7 out of 8 anti-light chain MoAb were degraded at a higher rate than 5 out of 5 anti-F(cμ)5 MoAb. One anti-cμ2 MoAb was degraded at a rate similar to the majority of anti-light chain MoAb. The intracellular transport of an anti-δ light chain MoAb and an anti-F(cμ)5 MoAb was studied in detail by subcellular fractionation in sucrose gradients. We found that the anti-δ light chain MoAb was transported more rapidly to lysosomes than the anti-F(cμ)5 MoAb, showing that they were sorted differently intracellularly.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Internist 39 (1998), S. 1237-1245 
    ISSN: 1432-1289
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Lebertransplantation ; Leberversagen ; Lebertransplantation ; Hepatitis ; Therapie ; Leberzirrhose ; Therapie ; Transplantation ; Leber
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Zum Thema Die ultima ratio der Lebertherapie, die Lebertransplantation, hat hierzulande und in aller Welt eine zunehmende Bedeutung gewonnen. Die Prognose der Lebertransplantation ist auch langfristig sehr günstig und hat sich aufgrund vieler Voraussetzungen in den letzten Jahren immer weiter verbessert. Nur die mangelnde Bereitschaft zur Organspende limitiert die Anzahl weiterer wünschenswerter Transplantationen, worauf – wieder einmal – hingewiesen sei. Da hauptsächlich über Indikation und Prognose informierte Ärzte am überzeugendsten in ihrem Umfeld auf einen Wandel zugunsten einer positiven Einstellung zur Organtransplantation bewirken können, sei diese Übersicht auch den nicht auf die Behandlung von Lebererkrankungen spezialisierten Kolleginnen und Kollegen empfohlen. Im Mittelpunkt der vorliegenden Arbeit stehen die Indikationen zur Lebertransplantation und deren Prognose. Da sich diese mit der Progredienz des Leidens im Hinblick auf das Transplantationsergebnis verschlechert, sollte bei bestehender Indikation die Lebertransplantation möglichst bald durchgeführt werden. Große Fortschritte wurden auch mit der möglichst individuellen Immunsuppression und antiviralen Therapie erzielt. Die Ergebnisse in der Entwicklung therapeutischer Systeme, die z.B. im Falle eines aktuen Leberversagens bis zur Bereitstellung eines Spenderorgans vorübergehend die Leberfunktion überbrücken helfen, sind ermutigend. Auch darüber wird referiert.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-2622
    Keywords: luminance electroretinogram ; pattern electroretinogram ; point-spread function ; straylight
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract It is generally accepted that the pattern electroretinogram for very large spatial elements is the result of local luminance stimulation. Responses due to the luminance differences between elements may be assumed to be relatively unimportant because in the case of large elements only few retinal units are stimulated by gradients. With decreasing pattern element size one wonders to what extent the electroretinogram continues to be based on the local luminance stimulation. We investigated this question using 8 Hz checkerboard reversal and compared the pattern recordings with the recordings resulting from the same stimulus field modulated homogeneously (focal electroretinogram). A 100% modulated checkerboard at retinal level may be considerably less modulated because of imperfect optics of the eye. So the pattern electroretinogram should be compared with homogeneous field stimulation of correspondingly lower modulation depth. On the basis of the optical transfer properties of the eye we compared by subtracting the proper focal electroretinogram from the pattern electroretinogram. The difference response was virtually zero for check sizes larger than 120′. For checks from 60′ down the difference response was of the same order of magnitude as the adjusted focal recording. This difference response for eyes with normal optics is largest around 30′; its wave form was found to be rather invariant with check size.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Documenta ophthalmologica 73 (1989), S. 255-274 
    ISSN: 1573-2622
    Keywords: red glasses ; retinitis pigmentosa ; visual function
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract As a consequence of animal studies reduction of the light regimes have been tried on patients with retinitis pigmentosa. The trials have been very limited and have not given reason for hope that such reduced light therapy may be beneficial. However, RP patients trying red glasses have reported acute subjective improvement of their visual function. It was the purpose of this study to try to document the reports more objectively. Five visual functions were tested with and without red glasses with the following results: 1. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. For one volunteer a small reproducible improvement was found. 2. Color vision. In most cases deterioration was found of already deficient color vision. 3. Visual fields. For volunteers with relatively preserved vision no difference or slight deterioration was found. For the other volunteers slight improvements were found. 4. Intraocular light scatter. No differences were found. 5. Dark adaptation. Improvements were found when the glasses were used as adaptation aid according to the method of Trendelenburg (rod function). For cone function no difference was found upon continuous wearing of red glasses. In conclusion: use of red glasses does not seem to be of great benefit as a rule. On the other hand, apart from the reduction in color discrimination no serious disadvantages seem to be inherent in their wear by RP patients.
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