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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Cell wall ; Ideotype breeding ; Selection ; Smooth bromegrass
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A random sample of 80 families of the B8HD smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) population were tested in three environments for forage yield and cell wall constituents. Expected progress from one cycle of family selection was computed for single-trait selection and multiple-trait restricted selection. Expected gains were compared to desired goals and actual results from one cycle of phenotypic selection. Desired goals were: Model I = reduced lignin and cellulose, with increased hemicellulose, resulting in no change in cell wall content; Model II = reduced lignin and cellulose with no change in hemicellulose; or Model III = reduced lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose. Single-trait selection for high hemicellulose in first harvest or low cellulose in second harvest had the best expected responses, of any single trait, for Model I. Possible undesirable effects of selection for low cellulose would be a reduction in forage yield potential. Multiple-trait restricted selection was judged to be more effective, with responses all in the desired direction, by specifying increased hemicellulose in index development. Selection in second harvest was expected to have similar responses as first harvest, except for a greater increase in forage yield. Development of Models II or III is expected to be difficult due to a negative correlation estimate between first and second harvest cell wall concentration.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1420-9098
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Resume Varvio-Aho et al. (1984) ont fait une analyse incorrecte de leurs données sur des allozymes de huit espèces de guêpes d'Europe du Nord. Une analyse correcte produit cinquante arbres d'une déviation standard d'un pourcent plus basse que leur arbre de Fitch-Margoliash, et trois arbres de Wagner supplémentaires de même longueur que leur réseau. La construction des arbres de consensus indique que leur données ne sont pas très informatives sur les parentés des espèces de vespines. Leur suggestions queDolichovespula ne forme pas un groupe monophylétique n'est pas soutenable.
    Notes: Summary Varvio-Aho et al. (1984) incorrectly analyzed their data on allozymes for eight species of European yellowjackets. Correct analysss produces 50 trees of lower percent standard deviation than their Fitch-Margoliash tree, and three additional Wagner trees of the same length as their network. Construction of consensus trees shows their data to be relatively uninformative on relationships of these vespine species. Their suggestion thatDolichovespula is not monophyletic cannot be upheld.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Mycorrhiza ; Pisonia ; Root epidermis ; Transfer cell
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Cells of the root epidermis ofPisonia grandis R. Br. at the interface with the mycorrhizal fungus are modified as transfer cells. The length of wall profile in transverse section is increased 1.7-fold by the wall ingrowths, on average, over the outer tangential wall and the outer third of the radial walls; this corresponds to a 1.3—fold increase in wall profile length over the whole cell. These increases in length of wall profile approximate—slightly underestimating-the amplification of surface area of the epidermal cells that results from the ingrowths. The surface area between the symbionts in thePisonia mycorrhiza is less amplified than in classical ectomycorrhizas with a Hartig net: this may be functionally adequate because of the extremely high nutrient status of theP. grandis habitat.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Apoplastic permeability ; Cellufluor ; Sheath structure ; Mycorrhiza ; Pisonia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The tracer Cellufluor has been used to test the apoplastic permeability of the fungal sheath inPisonia grandis R. Br. mycorrhizas. In the tip region in the immediate vicinity of the root cap, where the sheath is not yet fully differentiated, Celluflor penetrates as far as the root epidermal cells. Behind this (i.e. just proximal to it) in differentiated regions, where the ultrastructure of both the root and fungal cells indicates that the mycorrhiza is likely to be functionally active, the sheath is impermeable to Cellufluor. During the development and differentiation of the sheath, the interhyphal spaces become filled with extracellular material. In the outer and middle regions this becomes electron opaque after fixation and staining. It is proposed that the dramatic decrease in apoplastic permeability over a short distance back from the root apex as the fungal sheath differentiates results from secretion of extracellular material by the fungus and its modification by deposition of phenolic substances. The symplastic pathway within the fungus may be very important for radial transfer of materials across the sheath. Blockage of the sheath apoplast could provide a sealed apoplastic compartment at the fungus-root interface, with resulting increase in efficiency of transfer between partners. The implications of these observations are discussed in relation to radial transfer across the sheath and transfer between partners in sheathing mycorrhizas in general.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Applied crystallography online 19 (1986), S. 311-319 
    ISSN: 1600-5767
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: The resolution of a time-of-flight small-angle scattering spectrometer is complicated because many wavelengths contribute to the intensity for a particular scattering vector. The resolution function varies according to the wavelength distribution as well as with collimation. A rigorous calculation of the instrumental resolution requires averaging the resolution function weighted by the wavelength spectrum within the band of wavelengths used in a given measurement. For each scattering vector an effective wavelength is defined which, after substitution into the resolution expression developed for fixed wavelength, gives the resolution of the time-of-flight measurement. Alternatively, the resolution may be established by Monte Carlo methods. In order to check the calculated resolution function and the overall instrument resolution, measurements have been made on biological samples (myelin and collagen) which give sharp Bragg peaks at small values of scattering vector. The analysis of these results provides a direct comparison with calculations and with a similar measurement on a steady-source instrument.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 110 (1988), S. 368-372 
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The chemical, cooking and physical properties of semimembranosus, semitendinosus and biceps femoris of ham were determined. Significant differences in fat content of muscle and force required to penetrate the ham samples from the three muscles were found. No significant differences among three muscles in other properties were noted. A statistically significant correlation (r=-0.54) existed between the fat content of muscle and force required to penetrate the ham sample. Expressible juice from the muscles was significantly related to the cook loss and yield of hams. The moisture content of hams was also negatively related to the expressible juice. The possible mechanisms for these correlations are related to the ability of porcine muscles to chemically bind moisture during the cooking processes.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1745-4557
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effects of sodium tripolyphosphate and type of non-meat protein binders on the quality of smoked sausage produced from mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM) without skin were studied. Higher cook yields were observed in sausages containing soy protein isolate, soy protein concentrate and sodium caseinate (P 〈 0.05). Addition of sodium tripolyphosphate, with or without non-meat protein binder, also increased cook yields (P 〈 0.05). Objective and sensory textural attributes of firmness, chewiness and springiness were not affected by type of binder, but incorporation of phosphate increased sausage firmness. All chicken sausage treatments were considered acceptable by the sensory panel.
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