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  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd  (8)
  • 1985-1989  (8)
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Years
Year
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 45 (1985), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: An increase of free 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (DA, dopamine) in the rat brain such as is found following 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) administration or an intraventricular injection of free dopamine did not result in DA sulfate formation, despite the presence of phenolsulfotransferase activity in various regions of the brain and the high affinity of DA for this enzyme. However, when rats were pretreated with pargyline, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, the same treatment with L-DOPA or free DA led to active synthesis of DA sulfate. The increase in DA sulfate was significantly correlated with the degree of monoamine oxidase inhibition and directly proportional to free DA concentrations in the hypothalamus (r = 0.86), striatum (r = 0.54), and brain-stem (r = 0.89). The highest ratio of DA sulfate to free DA was found in the hypothalamus, suggesting that sulfoconjugation is most active in this region. Prior treatment of rats with 6-hydroxydopamine did not decrease DA sulfate concentrations, indicating that sulfoconjugation occurs most likely in extraneuronal tissues not destroyed by the neurotoxin. The results are compatible with the notion that phenolsulfotransferase may be highly compartmentalized and that inhibition of monoamine oxidase allows the newly generated free DA to become accessible to the sulfoconjugating enzyme, resulting in increase in DA sulfation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The effects of subeutaneous injection of l-β-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) on the concentrations of the catecholamines and catecholamine sulfates in the central and peripheral nervous Systems of the rat were studied. The results showed that free 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (DA, dopamine) increased rapidly and markedly in the hypothalamus and striatum after l-DOPA but DA sulfate did not change. Increased concentrations of DA sulfate were detected in the CSF and in the plasma, where it reached a concentration of 130.8 ± 12.8 ng/ml at 2 h, seven times the level of free DA (19.1 ± 2.9 ng/ml). In the kidney the ratio of DA sulfate to free DA was reversed in favor of free DA. Urine samples of l-DOPA-treated rats showed a higher increase of free DA than DA sulfate, but free norepinephrine (NE) and NE sulfate remained unchanged. Concentrations of free DA and free NE in the adrenal glands of l-DOPA-treated rats showed no change. Adrenal DA sulfate and NE sulfate were not detectable in the control and l-DOPA-treated rats, suggesting that the adrenal glands lack the capacity to take up or store catecholamines and their sulfate counterparts from the plasma.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Physiologia plantarum 70 (1987), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Shoots from two ecologically different evergreen tree species, Picea abies (L.) Karst and Coffea liberica Hiern, were used to carry out pressure volume (PV) measurements at 5–35°C. For this purpose a pressure chamber was equipped with thermoelectric temperature regulation. The non-linear sections of the resultant PV curves were sigmoidal for both species, with recognizable points of inflexion. These points, at around ψ= 1.12 MPa and relative water content (RWC) = 88.5% for Picea and at ψ= 0.92 MPa and RWC = 95.5% for Coffea, were characterised by a temporary increase in the resistance to water flow of the entire shoot (R5).The maximum value of the bulk modulus of elasticity (ɛ max) was also in the region of the point of inflexion. This value was considerably higher in Coffea than in Picea. The osmotic pressures at full water saturation (π0) and at turgor loss point (πp) showed a clear temperature dependence between 15 and 35°C differing only slightly from the theoretically expected situation. At 25°C these values were 1.72 and 2.48 MPa. respectively, for Picea and 1.58 and 1.87 MPa. respectively, for Coffea. The turgor loss point occurred at 76–77% RWC in Picea and at 86% RWC in Coffea, the proportion of apoplastic water varied between 22 and 25% in Picea but was only 9–10% in Coffea. The ecological differences between the two species are reflected in their temperature dependence for R5, which was much steeper for Coffea than for Picea. The energy of activation for the water conductance of the whole shoots was 13.0–14.4 kJ mol−1 in Picea and about 23 kJ mol−1 in Coffea.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The biochemical, sensory, and quality changes that occur during processing and prolonged frozen storage of kiwifruit pulp were studied. The temperature and processing time during pulp manufacture and freezing are critical factors in determining the % total chlorophyll and color of the frozen pulp. Storage of pulp at acceptable commercial frozen storage temperatures (−18°C or below) for 12 months resulted in a stable color, and a slight decrease in the % total chlorophylls and ascorbic acid. The type of packaging material used and deaeration of pulp did not influence the above findings. The sensory qualities of the pulp were not affected by the storage conditions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 52 (1987), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Pectin was extracted from whole kiwifruit at a mean yield of 0.85%. The analytical properties of the crude kiwifruit pectin extract were compared with those of a commercially available apple pectin. The kiwifruit pectin exhibited a high gelling temperature of 90°C.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Levels of glutamine synthetase (GS) biosynthetic activity, GS protein and GS mRNA were compared in the parent strain of Anabaena variabilis and in ammonia-liberating mutant strains (ED81 and ED92) which are resistant to ethylenediamine (EDA). GS activity, protein and mRNA levels were all reduced in ED92 whereas ED81 had levels of GS protein and mRNA similar to those of the parent strain but had much reduced GS biosynthetic activity. These findings are discussed in relation to the type of mutation occurring within in each mutant strain and in relation to the reduced GS activity in the Anabaena-Azolla symbiotic association.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Earlier experiments have shown that unilateral electrolytic lesions of the substantia nigra result in significant reductions in the rate of accumulation of rat striatal tryptamine. For elucidation of the type of neuronal degeneration that is associated with tryptamine depletion, the effects of intranigral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine or 5, 7-dihydroxytryptamine, which would affect, respectively, dopamine- or indoleamine-containing neurons, have been assessed. Nigral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions resulted in an ipsilateral reduction in the rate of accumulation of striatal tryptamine, but no changes were observed after nigral injections of 5, 7-dihydroxytryptamine. The present results suggest that decreases in the pargyline-induced accumulation of striatal tryptamine may be associated with lesions of the nigral dopamine-containing cell bodies. Alternatively, there may exist specific tryptamine-containing neurons that are damaged by 6-hydroxytryptamine and unaffected by 5, 7-dihydroxytryptamine.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The relationship between phenolsulfotransferase (PST) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) in the metabolism of free 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (DA, dopamine) in the rat brain was studied. In rats not pretreated with a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor a huge increase of free DA in the brain, following an intraperitoneal injection of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) or an intraventricular injection of free DA, did not lead to any noticeable change in DA sulfate or 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), which remained undetectable by the present HPLC method. However, in rats previously treated with the MAO inhibitors pargyline or tranylcypromine, the same L-DOPA or free DA treatment resulted in significant increases in both 3-MT and DA sulfate in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and striatum. This response of COMT and PST was not affected by prior treatment of the rats with 6-hydroxydopamine, which suggests that O-methylation and sulfoconjugation occur outside adrenergic neurons not destroyed by the neurotoxin. Inhibition of COMT activity did not lead to any increase in DA sulfate, which showed that despite their common mode of action (both enzymes react preferentially at the same hydroxyl group in the DA molecule), the two enzymes are not competitive. After MAO inhibition there were strong correlations between an increase in DA sulfate and 3-MT on the one hand, and between free DA and 3-MT on the other. Because 3-MT is a marker of central DA release, these data suggest that inhibition of MAO activity not only affects DA metabolism by this enzyme but also influences DA release in the rat brain.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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