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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of pediatrics 118 (1974), S. 25-44 
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Heart rate ; Swimming lesson in children
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bei 37 Kindern in Alter von 3–10 Jahren wurden telemetrische Messungen der Herzfrequenz während des regulären Schwimmunterrichts durchgeführt. Der im Stehen gewonnene Ausgangswert lag bei 122/min. Beim Schwimmen erreichte die Herzfrequenz im Mittel 150/min, stieg aber bis auf maximal 170/min an. Die höchsten Einzelwerte betrugen 210/min bei einem 6jährigen Mädchen und 204/min bei einem 6jährigen und einem 7jährigen Jungen. Beim Tauchen sank die Herzfrequenz innerhalb von 10 sec um 21/min und innerhalb von 20 sec um 38/min ab. Nach dem Tauchen stieg die Herzfrequenz rasch wieder an, blieb jedoch noch einige Zeit unter den vor dem Tauchen gemessenen Werten. Während des Tauchens wurden in unserem Untersuchungsgut die tiefsten Einzelwerte registriert, und zwar bei zwei 5jährigen Jungen jeweils 72/min. Die mittlere Herzfrequenz beim Hineinrutschen bzw. Hineinspringen übertraf mit 159/min die mittleren Werte beim Schwimmen. Die jüngeren Kinder erreichten sogar während des Rutschens und Springens häufiger den höchsten Wert als beim Schwimmen. Im allgemeinen erzielten Schulkinder während der meisten Phasen der Schwimmstunde höhere Herzfrequenzen als Kleinkinder. Der Höchstwert beim Schwimmen betrug z. B. für Kleinkinder 159/min, für Schulkinder hingegen 182/min. Dies lag daran, daß die größeren Kinder auf spielerische Anreize viel intensiver reagierten als die kleineren.
    Notes: Abstract Heart rate was measured telemetrically in 37 children of 3 to 10 years of age during regular swimming lessons. Starting from a resting value of 122 beast/min when the children were standing, the value increased to a mean of 150/min. A mean maximal value of 170/min was attained. The highest single values were 210/min in a 6-year-old girl and 204/min in two boys, 6-and 7-years-old. During diving heart frequency decreased within 10 sec by 21/min and within 20 sec by 38/min. After diving heart frequency increased again quickly, but still remained for some time below the value recorded before diving. During diving we found the lowest single values, 72/min in two 5-year-old boys. The mean heart frequency during sliding and jumping into the water was 159/min, which exceeded the mean heart rate during swimming. The smaller children up to 5 years attained maximal values even more often during sliding and jumping than during swimming. Generally, the heart rate during most periods of the lesson was higher in schoolaged children than in infants. For example the mean maximal value during swimming was 159/min in infants but 182/min in school-aged children. The reason was that the older children reacted much more intensively to friendly stimuli than the younger.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura ; Immunoglobulin Anti-D
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We have recently reported that a rise of platelet numbers in ITP can be induced by blockade of the RES with antibody-coated red blood cells. We now present a collaborative study in which 15 Rhesus-positive children with ITP (nine boys and six girls aged 1–15 years) were treated with low-dose anti-D. Ten patients had chronic ITP (duration 6–47 months), five had acute ITP. Doses of 28–50 μg anti-D/kg bodyweight per course were given intravenously. In all patients clinical signs of bleeding ceased and platelet counts were elevated. An excellent, good or fair response with platelet increments of 〉100, 50–100, or 20–50×109/l, respectively, was observed in 19, 7, and 12 out of 45 courses in chronic ITP, and in 4, 1, and 2 out of 8 courses in acute ITP. The platelet increase (〉40×109/l) persisted for 10 to over 360 days in chronic ITP. There were no untoward side reactions. Haemoglobin values remained stable in all patients but laboratory signs of mild, compensated haemolysis ensued. The direct antiglobulin test became positive in all cases due to anti-D IgG. Previous therapy of patients with chronic ITP included high-dose immunoglobulins and prednisone. These regimens were both effective but remissions were short. We conclude that anti-D therapy is an effective and safe form of treatment in childhood ITP.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: White matter lesions ; Cerebrovascular disease ; Magnetic resonance imaging ; Brain infarction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To establish data about prevalence, number and topography of “unspecific” white matter lesions as seen on MRI, the T2-weighted MRI scans of 83 patients with hyperintense focal white matter changes were reviewed. Patients with known inflammatory central nervous system disease were excluded. There was an approximately linear increase in prevalence and number of lesions with age. Prevalence ranged from 18% in the third decade to over 90% in those over 70 years. We found a close correlation with concomitant periventricular hyperintensity. However, rating of Virchow-Robin spaces did not correlate with the number of white matter lesions. Both hemispheres were involved nearly equally with a minimal non-significant right side preponderance. Lesions showed a strong predilection for the frontal and parietal paraventricular “watershed” areas.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: MRI ; Psychiatry ; white matter
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract T2-weighted MRI scans of psychiatric patients with at least one white matter lesion (WML) were compared to 83 non-psychiatric controls with respect to WML number and distribution. MANOVA results in significant effects for sex, age and patient group with respect to WML number. In the psychiatric patients, infratentorial WML prevailed in organic psychoses. WML number was positively correlated with age with the exception of rith temporal lobe WML. Based on WML spatial distribution, four patient clusters were found. Clusters with widely distributed WML comprised older patients with late onset of illness; right frontal and temporal WML were associated with mania, euphoria and unstable mood.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: 32.60.+i ; 42.50.Fx
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Superradiant transitions were observed between high lying levels in Sr. The transitions react very sensitively to an external electric field. Superradiant cascades or one transition in a superradiant branching can be suppressed. The square root of the high of a superradiant pulse decreases with the second power of the electric field strength. This behaviour can be explained by calculations.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-3916
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary To investigate the expectation of general insufficiency of osteoblasts with increasing age, we studied autotopsy material from 105 deceased persons of both sexes who had died between 16 and 91 years and in whom clinically manifest diseases of the bone had been excluded. Quantitative morphometric examination of the structure of the spongy bone of the 3rd–5th lumbar vertebral bodies (LVBs) and of the 5th–7th cervical vertebral bodies (CVBs) was carried out in frontal and saggital planes, the parameters analysed being volumetric density (Vv), surface density (Sv) and specific surface area (S/V), and the results were subjected to statistical evaluation. The results showed that in the three LVBs, Vv, Sv and S/V behave in a similar manner, Vv and Sv decreasing after the age of 50 years by more than one-third while S/V remains constant throughout life. The three lower CVBs had higher values than the LVBs for all three structural parameters. In the 7th CVB somewhat lower Vv and Sv values and higher S/V values were found than in the 5th and 6th. The age-related changes, by contrast, were very small. This differing behavior of the spongy bone in the two regions of the spinal column is an expression of the different characteristic loading forces in each regions: LVB loading is predominantly static, CVB loading mainly dynamic. Thus, from the functional point of view, what is known as “physiological osteoporosis due to ageing” is nothing more than adaptation by an ageing bone to physical activity, reflecting —like the bone of the young adult — the current loading of the cancellous bone by the actions of the musculoskeletal system. Since such physical activity is often age-related, the performance of the osteoblasts does not depend upon age per se, but merely on the remaining functional adaptive capacities of the ageing organism as whole.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1459
    Keywords: Atrial myxoma ; Neurological deficits ; Stroke ; Vasculitis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Neurological manifestations were analysed in 13 patients with left atrial myxoma confirmed by histological study. In this group, 6 patients had neurological complaints at initial presentation, 5 had cardiac symptoms, and 4 patients presented with signs of systemic disease. CT was performed in 10 and MRI in 7 patients. There were signs of ischaemic or haemorrhagic infarction (6 of 12) and one lesion suggestive of myxoma metastasis; other findings mainly comprised non-specific white matter lesions revealed by MRI. Neurological follow-up 0.5–8 years after tumour resection revealed no delayed neurological complications, follow-up CT and MRI findings were not suggestive of lesions acquired after operation. It is suggested that this rare condition of cardiac myxoma should be suspected in young patients with CNS symptoms or signs lacking cerebrovascular or cardiovascular risk factors and should be included in the differential diagnosis of vasculitis. With timely diagnosis and resection of the cardiac tumour the long-term prognosis can be considered improved.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-5079
    Keywords: amino acids ; nitrate reductase ; organic solutes ; pool sizes ; sugars ; water stress ; Zea mays (L.)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The activity of nitrate reductase and the pool sizes of some amino acids and some sugars were measured in relation to the leaf water potential (ψ) of maize leaves. The activity of nitrate reductase was severely inhibited in water-stressed maize leaves. This was not due to substrate shortage or the presence of an inhibitor at reduced leaf water potential. While the typical proteinogenic amino acids valine, tyrosine, leucine and isoleucine were almost undetectable in the leaves of the control plants, their concentrations markedly increased with declining ψ, thus indicating protein degradation. The concentrations of serine, glycine and glutamate increased upon water stress, their total amount in severely stressed leaves ranging 5- to 6-fold higher than the total amount of valine, tyrosine, leucine and isoleucine at this stage of water deficit. The pool sizes of glucose, fructose and sucrose decreased in relation to decreasing ψ. The total amount of organic solutes remained almost constant at least up to a ψ of approx.—1.0 MPa and then dropped to about 50% when ψ reached −1.25 MPa.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-2584
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neuroradiology 33 (1991), S. 341-345 
    ISSN: 1432-1920
    Keywords: Arachnoid cysts ; Volume measured ; Cyst growth
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The volumes of intracranial arachnoit cysts were measured in 136 CT scans of 86 patients. Absolute and relative cyst size was calculated. Left hemisphere and middle cranial fossa location prevailed. A slight negative correlation of relative cyst size with age (r=−0.21, NS) disappeared when analysis was restricted to the adult age group (≥20 years). After the sample was divided into two groups according to relative cyst size (cysts less than mean volume vs cysts greater than mean volume), small AC showed no correlation with age, while large AC correlated positively with age (r=0.79,P〈0.05). A subgroup of large AC appears to expand with time, while the majority of small AC remain unchanged.
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