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  • 1
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The arteries and veins of the heart of the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) are described from the dissection of nine specimens. The arterial distribution is composed of the basic mammalian pattern of two major vessels, the left and right coronary arteries, which supply the cardiac tissue. The venous drainage is provided by three major systems which are the great, middle, and small cardiac veins. The vascular characteristics of the heart of the beluga whale are the marked sinuosity of both coronary arteries and their main branches, the numerous large interarterial anastomoses between major vessels, and the duplication of vessels in parallel branches. These characteristics are discussed in functional terms and correlated with the diving ability of the species.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Knee joints from adult, juvenile, hatchling, and embryonic (full term) American alligators were dissected to reveal the cruciate ligaments and the medial and lateral menisci. Two anterior cruciate (major and minor), a posterior cruciate, an intermeniscal, and a meniscofemoral ligament were identified. In addition, we found a fourth internal ligament which has not been reported previously. Menisci and ligaments from left knees were fixed in formalin and processed for routine histological observation. Those from right knees were stained in bulk by using a gold chloride method and were either frozen and sectioned at 100 m̈m on a sliding microtome or were processed for paraffin sections at 30 m̈m. The morphology of the collagenous, cartilaginous, and vascular constituents of the tissues was similar to that of the dog, cat, and human. Nerve fibers were observed in all tissues sampled. Structures resembling Golgi tendon organs and Pacinian corpuscles were identified, reinforcing the theory that neural elements within cruciate ligaments and menisci may provide afferent input that affects the function of the knee joint.
    Additional Material: 15 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: We examined histochemically (light microscopy-LM) and cytochemically (electron microscopy-EM) the secretory epithelial cells in the tracheobronchial mucosa of sheep. Six morphologically distinct, granule-containing cells have been described, on the basis of their morphology and airway distribution: four mucous (M1-M4), serous (SC), and Clara (CC). Stereological and morphometric data indicated that M3, M4, SC, and CC were distinctly different from each other and from M1 and M2 cells. Mucous cells M1 and M2 differed in granule morphology. Samples of tracheas, sixth-generation bronchi, distal bronchi, and terminal bronchioles of 18 adult sheep were examined. At the LM level, methacrylate sections were reacted with an alcian blue (pH 2.5), periodic acid Schiff (PAS) sequence to differentiate neutral from acidic glycoconjugates (GC), and a high-iron diamine (HID), alcian blue sequence to differentiate sulfated from nonsulfated (sialated) GC. At the EM level the periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide localized hexose-rich, neutral GC. Dialyzed iron (DI) and high-iron diamine localized carboxylated and sulfated GC, respectively. Granules of all but Clara cells were PAS-positive. All mucous cells contained acidic groups, but only M1 and M4 cells had LM-detectable sulfated GC. At the ultrastructural level, minimal but discernible HID and LID reaction product was observed on granule profiles of M2, M3, and SC, indicating acidic and sulfated GC not detected at the LM level. Histochemically, the sheep tracheobronchial epithelium was more similar to that of humans than some other examined mammalian species.
    Additional Material: 40 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Conventional histochemical characterization of the mucus secretory apparatus is often difficult to reconcile with the biochemical analysis of respiratory secretions. This study was designed to examine the secretory glycoconjugates in airways using lectins with biochemically defined affinities for main sugar residues of mucus. We used five biotinylated lectins - DBA (Dolichos biflorus) and SBA (Glycine max) for N-acetyl galactosamine (gaINAc), BSAI (Bandeiraea simplicifolia) and PNA (Arachis hypogea) for galactose (gal), UEA I (Ulex europeus) - for detection of fucose (fuc) in HgCl2 -fixed, paraffin-embedded, serially sectioned trachea, lobar and segmental bronchi and bronchioles of nine sheep. Lectins selectively localized the carbohydrate residues in lumminal secretions, on epithelial cell surfaces, and in secretory cells. Inp proximal airways, the major carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, cell surfaces, goblet cells, and glands were fuc and gal-NAc. PNA reacted mainly with apical granules of 〈 10% of goblet cells, and gal residues were only detected in some of the mucous cells and on basolateral cell surfaces. Distal airways contained sparse secretion in the lumen, mucous cells containde weakly reactive fuc and gal-NAc, and the epithelial surfaces of Clara cells contained gal. Sugars abundant in the airway secretions were also the major component of cells in glands. We conclude that there is a correlation between specific sugar residues in secretory cells, glycocalyx, and luminal secretions in proximal and distal airways. This suggests that lectins may be used to obtain information about airway secretory cell composition from respiratory secretions.
    Additional Material: 24 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 191 (1987), S. 89-100 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The heart of the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) is described from the dissection of seven specimens. As in most whales the heart is characterized by a transverse broadness and a flatness of the ventricles from one surface to the other and by an apex formed by both ventricles. Heart size parameters are used for comparison with parameters of other marine and land mammals. The heart width index (heart height/heart circumference) averages 31.3 in comparison to 28.7 for the Weddell seal and 39.0 for the felids. The right ventricle is relatively long and narrow with a mean length index (TS/heart height) of 64.7 and a mean breadth index (TP/heart height) of 38.7. These heart parameters are discussed in functional terms.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The purpose of the present study was to characterize ultrastructurally the nonolfactory nasal epithelium of a nonhuman primate, the bonnet monkey. Nasal cavities from eight subadult bonnet monkeys were processed for light microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Nonolfactory epithelium covered the majority of the nasal cavity and consisted of squamous (SE), transitional (TE), and respiratory epithelium (RE). Stratified SE covered septal and lateral walls of the nasal vestibule, while ciliated pseudostratified RE covered most of the remaining nasal cavity. Stratified, nonciliated TE was present betwen SE and RE in the anterior nasal cavity. This epithelium was distinct from the other epithelial populations in abundance and types of cells present. TE was composed of lumenal nonciliated cuboidal cells, goblet cells, small mucous granule (SMG) cells, and basal cells, while RE contained ciliated cells, goblet cells, SMG cells, basal cells, and cells with intracytoplasmic lumina lined by cilia and microvilli. TE and RE contained similar numbers of total epithelial cells and basal cells per millimeter of basal lamina. TE was composed of more SMG cells but fewer goblet cells compared to RE. We conclude that nonolfactory nasal epithelium in the bonnet monkey is complex with distinct regional epithelial populations which must be recognized before pathologic changes within this tissue can be assessed adequately.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0002-9106
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Previous studies of the intrapulmo-nary conducting airways of sheep and rabbit have demonstrated marked diversity in the epithelial populations lining them. Because studies of trachea and centriaci-nar regions of macaque monkeys suggested that primates may be even more diverse, the present study was designed to characterize the epithelial population throughout the airway tree of one primate species, the rhesus monkey. Trachea and intrapulmonary airways of the right cranial and middle lobes of glutaraldehyde/ paraformaldehyde-infused lungs of five adult rhesus monkeys were microdissected following the axial pathway. Each branch was assigned a binary number indicating its specific location within the tree. The trachea and six generations of intrapulmonary airway from the right cranial lobe were evaluated for ultrastructure and quantitative histology as were those of the right middle lobe for quantitative carbohydrate histochemistry. Four cell types were identified throughout the tree: ciliated, mucous goblet, small mucous granule, and basal. The tallest epithelium lined the trachea; the shortest, the respiratory bronchiole. The most cells per unit length of basement membrane were in proximal intrapulmonary bronchi; the least, in the respiratory bronchiole. The nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial or Clara cell was restricted to respiratory bronchioles. Sulfomucins were present in the vast majority of surface goblet cells in the trachea and proximal bronchi. In proximal bronchi, neutral glycoconjugates predominated in glands and acidic glycoconjugates in surface epithelium. In terminal and respiratory bronchioles the ratio of acidic gly-coconjugate to neutral glycoconjugate equaled that in proximal bronchi, although glands were not present. Sulfomucins were minimal in terminal airways. We conclude that the characteristics of the epithelial lining of the mammalian tracheobronchial airway tree are very species-specific. The lining of the rhesus monkey does not have the diversity in cell types in different airway generations observed in sheep and rabbit. Also, the populations lining these airways in the rhesus are very different from either the sheep or rabbit in number, proportions of different cell types, glycoconjugate content, and distribution of specific cell types.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Gamete Research 18 (1987), S. 201-213 
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: goat ; embryo ; ultrastructure ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: In vivo nucleologenesis was studied in goat embryos from the pronuclear stage to the blastocyst stage by light and electron microscopy. Ultrastructural changes of the nucleoli were characterized by the following progression: homogeneous electron-dense fibrillar primary nucleoli in the pronucleus; small, dense fibrillar masses dispersed in clusters of chromatin at the two-cell stage; ring-shaped nucleoli made up of a fibrillar center surrounded by a layer of dense fibrillar components at the four-cell stage; reticulated nucleoli composed of a three-dimensional network of fibrillar components surrounded by small amounts of granular components at the eight-cell stage; fully developed compact-type nucleoli consisting of several fibrillar centers each surrounded by a layer of fibrillar componenets and abundant granular components in morulae and blastocysts. Moreover, it was concluded that activation of rRNA transcription, as evidenced by specific silver nitrate staining of the nucleolus organizer regions of metaphase chromosomes, occurs at the two-to four-cell stage and that the morphological changes accompanied a substantial increase in nucleolar transcriptional activity up to the blastocyst stage. This study provides evidence that a structure-function relationship exists during nucleologenesis in goat embryos.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0741-0581
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0003-276X
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This study was designed to characterize the ultrastructure and carbohydrate content of secretory cells in submucosal glands of rhesus monkey and to compare this information with that available for humans. The tracheas from five adult monkeys were fixed by airway infusion, processed, and embedded for both light and transmission electron microscopy. Histochemical stains including alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff, dialyzed iron, and high-iron diamine-alcian blue were applied to serial glycol methacrylate sections. The cytochemical stains used included periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate, high-iron diamine, and low-iron diamine. The glandular secretory cells were divided into four categories based on ultrastructure and location within the gland. Cells in the first category resembled the mucous cell of the surface epithelium and were located in ducts most proximal to the tracheal lumen. The second category consisted of cells that were located in distal ducts and contained large electron-lucent granules. The granules in both of these cell groups contained material that was periodate-reactive and sulfated. Cells of the third category contained granules that were either electron-lucent or electron-dense. These cells, which were difficult to characterize as either serous or mucous, were located in secretory tubules and acini and contained periodate-reactive glyco-conjugates that were either sulfated or nonsulfated. The last category consisted mainly of cells that contained electron-dense granules that were lightly periodate-reactive or a few that were unreactive with any of the cytochemical methods used here. We concluded from this study that 1) the submucosal glands of rhesus monkey contain secretory cells with a variety of morphologies; 2) the secretory cells, which in some cases are not easily identified as mucous or serous, contain material that is periodate-reactive and sulfated, contain material that is periodate-reactive only, or contain no carbohydrate as detected by the cytochemical methods used; and 3) the submucosal glands of rhesus monkey trachea resemble those described in human airways.
    Additional Material: 20 Ill.
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