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  • Life and Medical Sciences  (2)
  • 1985-1989  (2)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: This study concerned changes in the motional properties of cellular water during the first cell cycle of fertilized sea urchin eggs (Lytechinus variegatus). There was a significant decrease in proton NMR T1 relaxation time and in cytoplasmic ice crystal growth during mitosis and a significant increase in T1 time and cytoplasmic ice crystal size during cleavage. This was not caused by egg water content changes as reflected by egg volume measurements. Removal of both the fertilization membrane and the hyaline layer shortly after fertilization did not alter the pattern of T1 time changes at mitosis and cleavage as compared to whole eggs; thus, the pattern of T1 time changes was attributed to intracellular events. Treatment of fertilized eggs with cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, did not block the fall in T1 time at mitosis, but did block cytokinesis and the increase in T1 time, which normally occurred at cleavage. A significant pattern of actin disassembly and reassembly at mitosis and cytokinesis was found by studies on the total amount of monomeric actin (G actin) using the DNase I assay. This led to the hypothesis that the observed changes in T1 time and ice crystal size during the first cell cycle were due to the depolymerization and polymerization of cytoplasmic actin. To test this, the effect of the in vitro polymerization of purified actin on the T1 time and on ice crystal growth was examined. It was concluded that changes in the T1 time and ice crystal growth upon polymerization of actin in vitro resembled the changes seen in vivo. These results suggest that changes in the motional properties of cytoplasmic water during the first cell cycle are due, at least in part, to the state of polymerization of cytoplasmic actin.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Gamete Research 14 (1986), S. 277-291 
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: rhodaminyl-labeled phalloidin ; cytochalasin E ; microfilament distribution ; fertilization ; cell division ; sea urchin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Rhodaminyl-labeled phalloidin is used to demonstrate the distribution of microfilaments during fertilization and early development in eggs of the sea urchins Arbacia punctulata and Lytechinus variegatus. The surface of unfertilized eggs have numerous punctate fluorescence sites at which rhodaminyl phalloidin binds, indicating the presence of actin oligomers or polymers. During fertilization this punctate pattern of fluorescence begins to change. Within thirty seconds of insemination, the fertilization cone is first detectable with this technique as an erect structure on the surface of the egg. The fertilization cone grows to a maximum size by 8-9 minutes, and is resorbed by 16 minutes after insemination. The surface of the fertilized egg displays numerous fluorescent fibers by 10 minutes after insemination rather than the punctate fluorescence observed in unfertilized eggs, indicative of the burst of microfilament assembly resulting in microvillar elongation. The elongated microfilaments persist through cytokinesis. Staining is also detected throughout the cortices of unfertilized, fertilized, and cleaving eggs. Cytochalasin E (10 μM, 30 min) prevents microfilament elongation and cytokinesis and reduces the cortical staining intensity after fertilization. At cleavage, contractile rings, appearing as narrow equatorial bundles of fibers, have been detected in Lytechinus variegatus as transient structures.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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