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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1254
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Studies were carried out to ascertain the role of sympatho-parasympathetic responses in the process of adaptation to altitude. The assessment of status of autonomic balance was carried out in a group of 20 young male subjects by recording their resting heart rate, blood pressure, oral temperature, mean skin temperature, extremity temperatures, pupillary diameter, cold pressor response, oxygen consumption, cardioacceleration during orthostasis and urinary excretion of catecholamines; in a thermoneutral laboratory. The same parameters were repeated on day 3 and at weekly intervals for a period of 3 weeks, after exposing them to 3,500 m; and also after return to sea level. At altitude, similar studies were carried out in a group of 10 acclimatized lowlanders, 10 high altitude natives and 6 patients who had recently recovered from high altitude pulmonary oedema. In another phase, similar studies were done in two groups of subjects, one representing 15 subjects who had stayed at altitude (3,500–4,000 m) without any ill effects and the other comprising of 10 subjects who had either suffered from high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) or acute mountain sickness (AMS). The results revealed sympathetic overactivity on acute induction to altitude which showed gradual recovery on prolonged stay, the high altitude natives had preponderance to parasympathetic system. Sympathetic preponderance may not be an essential etiological factor for the causation of maladaptation syndromes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Triticum aestivum ; Puccinia recondita ; Adult plant resistance ; Resistance genes ; Durable resistance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Wheat genotypes, including backcross derivatives of ‘Thatcher’ carrying Lr10 and Lr23, substitution lines for Lr10 and Lr23 in Chinese Spring background and Chinese Spring and Thatcher were analysed against 21 pathotypes of leaf rust in seedling tests. Adult plant responses in all these stocks were observed in the field nurseries under exposure to the inoculum of the Indian virulent races of leaf rust. The seedling data demonstrated that both the substitution lines and the backcross derivatives for each gene carry identical pattern of infection for resistance. The high level of adult plant resistance in the substitution lines, in contrast to the backcross derivatives in Thatcher, has been postulated to be due to the combination of resistance contributed by Lr10 and adult plant Chinese Spring resistance or to Lr23 and Chinese Spring adult plant resistance. It has been suggested that genes Lr10 and Lr23 added to the Chinese Spring background provide sources for durable resistance, since Chinese Spring has continued to provide a moderate level of adult plant resistance to leaf rust for a very long time.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A microassay was developed to study the rapid binding characteristics of murine macrophages activated by gamma interferon and muramyl dipeptide to adherent neoplastic or nonneoplastic target cells. The binding of tumor cells to both activated and nonactivated macrophages was time- and temperature-dependent, and independent of tumor cell type. Activated macrophages bound more tumor cells than nonactivated macrophages. The initial binding of macrophages to target cells did not necessarily lead to lysis. First, primed macrophages bound tumor cells but did not lyse them, and second, nonactivated macrophages bound nontumorigenic cells without subsequent lysis. The rapid binding assay described here could prove useful in investigating the recognition mechanism(s) between macrophages and tumor cells derived from solid primary and metastatic cancers.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We investigated the ability of free or liposome-incorporated synthetic chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) to generate tumoricidal properties in mouse macrophages. As FMLP contains three hydrophobic amino acid residues, it can readily be incorporated into multilamellar vesicles (MLV) consisting of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylserine (PS). The incorporation of FMLP into MLV with a PC:PS ratio of 7:3 mol at FMLP concentrations of up to 10−4 M did not affect the phagocytosis of liposomes by mouse peritoneal macrophages. Studies with radioactive FMLP revealed that higher levels of FMLP can be delivered to macrophages by liposomes than in the free, nonencapsulated form. Treatment of mouse macrophages with liposome-encapsulated FMLP, but not with free FMLP, generated tumoricidal properties in the macrophages. The mechanism appears to involve an intracellular site since 100-fold concentrations of free FMLP or free N-acetyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, the FMLP agonist, failed to competitively inhibit the macrophage's tumoricidal properties generated by liposome-encapsulated FMLP.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2196
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Conclusions The demonstration that appropriately activated macrophages can destroy microorganisms and cancer cells has prompted an intense search to identify agents which can render these cells active in vivo. Several natural products, e. g., lymphokines or synthetic molecules, e. g., MDP can produce the tumoricidal state in macrophages. The in vivo use of these agents has been limited, since they have a very short half life. Liposomes offer a most useful carrier system to transport agents to phagocytic cells in vivo. Once in the circulation, liposomes are cleared by phagocytic cells and this passive localization provides an effective mechanism for targeting liposome-entrapped materials to macrophages. In this review we have described the exploitation of this mechanism to deliver lymphokines or other synthetic molecules to macrophages in situ. Since not all liposomes home equally to macrophages, there is still a great need to identify vesicles with ideal properties for this task. The potential application of liposome encapsulated agents to activate macrophages is tremendous. Only future studies will determine the effectiveness and limitations for activated macrophages in enhancing host defense against infections and cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract It is shown that in a heliomagnetic field the presence of a magnetic quadrupole in addition to a magnetic dipole introduces a north-south asymmetry in the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) about the heliographic equator. The dominant polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) for the above type of current sheet reverses sign at a transition latitude θ T, which lies in a heliohemisphere opposite to the one in which the HCS has more heliolatitudinal extension. The position of θ T in the heliosphere and the north-south asymmetry introduced in the HCS change with the relative phase of the dipole and quadrupole components present in the solar magnetic field. The effect of the above type of asymmetric HCS in the IMF ‘mean sector width’ is evaluated and the results are in agreement with the observations during the minima of solar cycle 21.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Stamford, Conn. [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Polymer Engineering and Science 29 (1989), S. 1689-1698 
    ISSN: 0032-3888
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Ultrasonic welding is one of the most popular techniques for joining thermoplastics because it is fast, economical, and easily automated. In near-field ultrasonic welding, the distance between the horn and the joint interface is 6 mm or less. This study investigated the near-field ultrasonic welding of amorphous (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and polystyrene) and semicrystalline (polyethylene and polypropylene) polymers. High frequency ultrasonic wave propagation and attenuation measurements were made in order to estimate the dynamic mechanical moduli of the polymers. The estimated moduli were entered into a lumped parameter model in order to predict heating rates and energy dissipation. Experimental results showed that variations in the welding pressure had little effect on energy dissipation or joint strength; Increasing the amplitude of vibration increased the energy dissipation and the weld strength. For the semicrystalline polymers, increasing the weld time improved strength up to weld times greater than 1.5 s, where strength leveled off. For the amorphous polymers, the weld strength increased with Increasing weld time up to times of 0.8 s; for longer weld times, the power required was too high, causing overloading of the welder. Monitoring of the energy dissipation and static displacement or collapse provided valuable information on weld quality.
    Additional Material: 16 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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