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  • 1
    ISSN: 1420-908X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract It is well known that nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents produce gastric mucosal lesions in both laboratory animals and man. However, the effect of an arthritic condition on their susceptibility to ulcerogenic agents and on the efficacy of antiulcer agents is less definitive. As a model to explore these questions, the effect of oral administration of aspirin or ethanol on gastric lesion formation was examined in rats with or without established adjuvant-induced polyarthritis. In addition, the antilesion efficacy of rioprostil, a primary alcohol prostaglandin E1 analog, was evaluated in both groups of rats. The results demonstrated that arthritic rats were more sensitive to the lesion-inducing effect of aspirin, but were more resistant to the lesion-inducing effect of ethanol when compared to normal rats. An increase in endogenous gastric prostaglandin production in arthritic rats may account for their relative resistance to ethanol. Aspirin inhibited the prostaglandin synthetic capacity of the stomach in both normal and arthritic rats, which may be responsible for eliminating the relative resistance of arthritic rats to gastric irritation. Rioprostil effectively prevented aspirin or ethanol-induced lesion formation in both arthritic and nonarthritic rats, but its potency against either irritant was decreased in arthritic rats.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0714
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Submandibular glands are a target organ of thyroid hormones. This study examined the effects of hypothyroidism on the biochemical characteristics of these glands in the nil. There were no effects on the neutral sugar and DNA contents. However, soluble protein concentrations (μg/mg wet weight) were significantly decreased and sialic acid concentrations (μg/mg soluble protein) were significantly elevated.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-8485
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The expression within Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 of three mutant pilin genes from P. aeruginosa PAK was studied to determine their effects on pilin stability, translocation into the membrane, leader peptide removal, and methylation of the mature N-terminal phenylalanine. The results revealed that a deletion of 4 or 8 amino acids within the immediate N-terminus of pilin had deleterious effects upon leader peptide cleavage. In addition, while the 4-amino-acid deletion did not affect pilin partitioning into the membrane, the 8-amino-acid deletion decreased the amount of pilin found within the membrane fraction. Of considerable interest was the finding that the mutation within the mature pitin of the glutamate at position 5 to a lysine did not prevent leader peptide removal but did inhibit the methylation of the N-terminal phenylalanine.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Protoplast fusion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The percentage of hybrids formed during protoplast fusion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is determined by the percentage of protoplasts at the GI/S boundary of the cell cycle.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: theophylline ; etophylline ; diurnal variations ; i.v. application ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Peat ; Water-table height ; N mineralization ; Ammonifiers ; Nitrate reducers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Peat cores, 0–60 cm depth, were taken on 14 occasions from three experimental plots where the water levels in the surrounding ditches had been artificially controlled for 14 years at 0, 20 and 50 cm below the surface. Numbers of aerobic and anaerobic ammonifying bacteria in the profile were significantly increased (P〈 0.05) by lowering the water level from 0 to 50 cm. These increases occurred mainly in the surface 20 cm horizon, where 80%–90% of the ammonifying bacteria in the profile occurred. Mineral N in fresh samples, which was present almost entirely as ammonium, decreased sharply with depth below 20 cm, and on two occasions concentrations were significantly greater (P〈0.05) in plots with water levels at 20 and 50 cm than in the flooded peat. Readily mineralized N, produced during waterlogged incubation at 30°C for 9 weeks, was significantly greater (P〈0.05) on eight occasions in samples from plots with water levels at 20 or 50 cm than in those where the water level was at the surface. Calculations showed that the increases in N availability as a result of lowering the water-table could be attributed mainly to deeper rooting.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Transneuronal transport ; Oculomotor system ; Wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horse-radish peroxidase ; Abducens nucleus ; Monkey
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The fate of wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA/HRP) subsequent to its uptake and retrograde axonal transport in abducens motoneurons of the monkey was studied using histochemical localization of WGA/HRP reaction product and light microscopy. Injections of WGA/HRP into monkey lateral rectus muscles produced a pattern of labelled motoneurons like that obtained with native HRP. In contrast to the native HRP data, WGA/HRP injections consistently labelled additional neuronal populations in the ipsilateral medial vestibular nucleus and contralateral dorsal medullary reticular formation. These regions correspond to those containing neurons known to make inhibitory synaptic contact with abducens motoneurons. No labelled neurons were observed in regions which contain excitatory premotor neurons. These data are consistent with the notion of retrograde transneuronal transport of WGA/HRP to premotor neurons. The specificity of the transneuronal exchange is indicated by the finding that only certain populations of premotor neurons were labelled. The precise manner by which preferential transneuronal transport of WGA/HRP is attained remains to be determined.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Somatosensory evoked potential ; Long latency stretch reflex
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The cerebral evoked potential produced by rapid extension of the wrist was recorded from scalp electrodes in normal subjects while they exerted a small background flexor torque (0.24 Nm) against an electric motor. The initial part of the response consisted of a negative deflection (N1) with an average latency of 24.7 ms. This was followed by a biphasic P1/P2 (32 ms) response and a large later negative wave (N2) (76 ms). Passive wrist extension also evoked reflex EMG responses in the forearm flexor muscles which could be resolved into a short latency (25 ms) and long-latency (52 ms) component. The cerebral responses persisted almost unchanged during complete ischaemic anaesthesia of the hand produced by a pressure cuff around the wrist, and were reduced if the stretch was given during voluntary wrist flexion. The primary component (N1-P1/ P2) of the cerebral response probably represents the arrival at the cortex of the muscle afferent volley. However, the significance of the secondary component (P1/P2-N2) is unknown. Under certain conditions, its size was related to the size of the long latency stretch reflex evoked by stretch of the flexor muscles. Thus, increasing the velocity of stretch or decreasing the repetition rate (from 1.0 to 0.15 Hz) at which stretches were applied, increased the size of both the muscle reflex and the cerebral response. The secondary component also could be changed by voluntary reaction to wrist stretch. Changes in the size of the secondary component of the evoked response may represent the earliest cortical sign of interaction between sensory input and motor output.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Motor cortical stimulation ; Cortico-spinal conduction ; Trunk muscles ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Percutaneous electrical stimulation of the motor cortex was used to activate rapidly conducting corticofugal pathways to human abdominal muscles. Following cortical stimulation the response latencies for the abdominal muscles were similar to those for limb muscles which are a similar distance from the motor cortex. Cortically evoked responses recorded from the abdominal muscles had the same latency and similar amplitude during several voluntary tasks including expiration, expulsive manoeuvres and trunk flexion. Responses could also be evoked when the chemical drive to breathe was increased by rebreathing. In addition, the properties of the cortical projection to muscles of the abdominal wall were directly compared with those of the projection to the intrinsic muscles of the hand. The latencies of responses in abdominal muscles and intrinsic muscles of the hand were measured during static contractions over a range of strengths in the same subjects (0–100% maximal voluntary contraction, MVC). For both muscle groups, cortically evoked muscle responses of minimal latency occurred when background contractions reached 10–20% MVC with responses of maximal amplitude at 60% MVC. The variability in latency of fifty consecutive responses were similar for the two muscle groups. Furthermore, post-stimulus time histograms for 4 rectus abdominis motoneurones revealed a brief initial excitatory peak of 1.15ms duration (range 0.96–1.34ms) following cortical stimulation. The characteristics of this peak are the same as reported for motoneurones of intrinsic hand muscles. These findings demonstrate a powerful rapidly conducting pathway from the motor cortex to the human abdominal muscles. This pathway has many of the same properties as the monosynaptic corticospinal projection to the distal muscles of the upper limb.
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