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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: drug epidemiology ; prescription forgeries ; substance abuse ; psychotropic drugs ; analgesics ; benzodiaepines
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Data on forged prescriptions in Sweden in 1982–1986 were studied as an indicator in an epidemiological survey of medication abuse. The annual number of prescription forgeries doubled during the 5-year period. Psychotropic drugs accounted for 62% and analgesics for 25% of all forgeries. Benzodiazepines were the major single drug group, comprising 52% of all forgeries during the period. The major benzodiazepines on the market in Sweden (diazepam, oxazepam, nitrazepam and flunitrazepam) were the subject of largest number of forgeries. When calculated in relation to the utilization (either total sales or the number of prescriptions), the analgesics codeine, pentazocine and ketobemidone were clearly at the head of the list, suggesting greater abuse liability of these drugs. It is suggested that the data on forged prescriptions can be used as a “signalling mechanism” in epidemiological surveillance of medication abuse, aimed at detecting changes in the prevalence as well as in the pattern of abuse.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: hypertension ; hypertensive therapy ; drug utilization ; therapeutic traditions ; international differences
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A questionnaire survey based on hypertension case histories was performed among a representative sample of 400 GP's and hospital doctors in Northern Ireland, Norway and Sweden, countries having markedly different utilization of antihypertensive drugs. We found a greater propensity to start antihypertensive drug treatment in Northern Ireland than in Norway and Sweden. This was true both in mild diastolic and isolated systolic hypertension. Yet the utilization of antihypertensive drugs in Sweden is about 60% higher than in Northern Ireland and 30% higher than in Norway. Swedish physicians preferred beta-blockers as their first choice to a greater extent than physicians in Northern Ireland and Norway who selected thiazides more often. In general, the choice of drugs agreed with the sales and prescribing patterns in the three countries. Besides providing more insight in therapeutic traditions the study indicates that the lower prescribing of antihypertensive drugs in Northern Ireland, and to some extent in Norway, compared to Sweden, might be due to differences in true or apparent morbidity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: antihypertensive drugs ; antidiabetic drugs ; prescribing practice ; utilization ; Northern Ireland ; Norway ; Sweden
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The amount of antihypertensive and antidiabetic drugs based of defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day varies two to three fold between Northern Ireland, Norway, and Sweden. We explored whether variations based on the universally applied defined daily doses might be accounted for by national differences in the actual average prescribed daily doses. Use of prescribed daily doses for antihypertensive drugs resulted in Northern Irish and Norwegian consumption figures which were respectively 40 and 21% lower than the Swedish one, compared to 38 and 25% when defined daily doses were used. The effect of population age-sex differences on the gross defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day figures was determined by applying the Northern Irish or Norwegian age-sex group proportions to Swedish age-sex specific sales data. Taking population differences into account would have resulted in antihypertensive drug use being 21 rather than 38% less in Northern Ireland and 18 rather than 25% less in Norway. Also adjustment for prescribed daily doses left an unexplained difference of 23% between Sweden and Northern Ireland and 14% between Sweden and Norway. For oral antidiabetics use of prescribed daily doses resulted in a Northern Irish — Swedish difference of 62% compared to 67% when defined daily doses were used. Simultaneous adjustment for population differences and prescribed to defined daily dose variations left a 52% difference.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: diabetes ; therapy ; antidiabetic drugs ; therapeutic traditions ; questionnaire survey ; drug utilization ; international differences
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A questionnaire survey was carried out to explore differences in the approach to treatment of patients with Type II diabetes between physicians in Northern Ireland, Norway and Sweden, and to discover to what extent it could account for the three-fold difference in drug use between the countries. A representative sample of 400 physicians in each country was asked to give their opinions on the choice of therapy for three model cases designed to cover the spectrum of treatment — from diet alone to insulin. Significantly more Swedish (65%) than Northern Irish (51%) and Norwegian (52%) doctors suggested diet alone for uncomplicated diabetes recently discovered in a middle aged, overweight man. For symptomatic diabetes in a 76 year old overweight woman with few retinal microaneurysms, the majority of physicians in all three countries suggested treatment with sulphonylureas. Biguanides were here a more common alternative in Northern Ireland than in Scandinavia. For suspected secondary treatment failure in a 63 year old woman with no signs of complications, insulin was suggested by 71% of the Norwegian doctors but only by 44 and 49% of those in Northern Ireland and Sweden, respectively. General practitioners tended to suggest oral treatment earlier and to maintain it longer than hospital physicians. The study has demonstrated significant differences in the approach to treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus between physicians in the three countries. However, the differences were more prominent in the choice of drugs than in the threshold of drug treatment. The results also fit with qualitative but not with quantitative differences in drug sales between the countries, suggesting that important differences may exist in the prevalence of clinically recognized Type II diabetes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: drug utilization ; antibiotics ; paediatric prescribing ; childhood ; Swedish Diagnosis and Therapy Survey ; international comparison ; therapeutic traditions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The prescribing of medicines for ambulant children below 14 years of age has been compared between Tenerife (Spain) and Sweden. Data obtained from a random sample of 1327 children in a prospective study in Tenerife were compared with data from 3901 children in a Swedish survey linking diagnosis and therapy. Upper respiratory tract infection was the main diagnosis in both countries and antibiotics was the most frequently prescribed drug group (28.2% in Tenerife and 28.8% in Sweden). Half of the children in Sweden did not receive any medication, but only 10% of those in Tenerife did not receive a prescription. Children who received a prescription on average got 1.4 drugs in Sweden and 2.3 in Spain. Amongst the ten most commonly prescribed products in Sweden there were 11 active pharmacological principles as compared to 25 in Spain. These most frequently used preparations accounted for two thirds of all the prescriptions for children in Sweden and one third in Tenerife. In conclusion, drugs were significantly more often used to treat paediatric outpatients in Tenerife than in Sweden. The prescribing physician in Spain also chose a wider variety of drugs and more commonly used fixed combination products.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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