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  • 1985-1989  (7)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5192
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The technique of isoenzyme (enzyme isotype) electrophoresis was used to compare genetic profiles of extracts of zoites of sarcocysts from North America and Australasia. The species examined were Sarcocystis muris (Railliet, 1886) from mice, S. gigantea (Railliet, 1886) (syn. S. ovifelis Heydorn et al., 1975) from sheep, S. capracanis Fischer, 1979 from goats and S. cruzi (Hasselmann, 1923) (syn. S. bovicanis Heydorn et al., 1975) from cattle. Sarcocysts from the four host animals had different alleles at almost all loci studied. This was not affected by having a common definitive host. Extracts of two cat-borne Sarcocystis species shared alleles at only 3 out of 16 loci, while two dog-borne Sarcocystis species had different alleles at 8 out of 16 loci. The extent of genetic divergence among sarcocysts confirmed the existance of distinct species in each host sampled. By contrast, the isolates from the United States of America and Australasia for any particular host were essentially identical, sharing at least one allele at every locus tested. ac]19860908
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The ultrastructure of sporozoites and zoites of Hammondia heydorni was studied in cultured bovine cells. In addition to ultrastructural features typical of coccidian parasites, H. heydorni sporozoites and zoites contain rhoptries that are located posteriorly as well as anteriorly. Also, sporozoites contain a posteriorly located crystalloid body (1.2 μm in diameter); a small crystalloid body (0.5 μm in diameter) was occasionally seen in the anterior end. Zoites resulting from the 1st division of endodyogeny contain a posteriorly located crystalloid body, which is absent in zoites formed by subsequent divisions. Zoites contain posteriorly located amylopectin granules and a relatively large anterior vacuole which is not present in sporozoites. During penetration, the host cell plasmalemma ballooned laterally around the sporozoite creating a large cavity, which later disappeared. Sporozoites and zoites undergoing cell penetration usually exhibit partially empty anterior rhoptries; no changes occur in posterior rhoptries. Lysosomes fuse with the par-asitophorous vacuole surrounding killed sporozoites but not live sporozoites.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: . Disc-shaped plaques were found in the primary cyst wall of sarcocysts of Sarcocystis hemionilatrantis in mule deer in Montana. Ultrastructurally, the plaques were 190.5 nm in diameter, 161.6 nm thick and consisted of six distinct layers with microfilaments arising from the innermost layer. These unusual plaques have not been reported previously for any species of Sarcocystis.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Sporozoites were excysted from oocysts of Hammondia heydorni obtained from a naturally-infected dog and inoculated into monolayer cultures of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (CPA), Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells, bovine monocytes (M617), or ovine monocytes (WOMO). Sporozoites penetrated all four cell lines and underwent asexual reproduction by endodyogeny (as determined by electron microscopy) to form cyst-like structures at four to nine days after sporozoite inoculation (DAI). At 4–10 DAI, considerably more zoites were harvested from M617 cultures (80.1 times 106 zoites) than from CPA (17.4 times 106), MDBK. (47.3 times 106), and WOMO (53.5 times 106). Little or no parasite multiplication occurred at 10–16 DAI. Zoites harvested at 7 DAI and transferred to freshly prepared cultures did not penetrate cells nor develop further.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: . Sporozoites of Sarcocystis capracanis and S. tenella (Apicomplexa) penetrated all four cell types tested (bovine monocytes, BM; bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells, CPA; Madin-Darby bovine kidney; and ovine monocytes). Sporozoites of S. tenella developed to meronts in BM and CPA; those of S. capracanis developed to meronts in BM only. Both species of Sarcocystis developed to large first-generation meronts followed by small meronts. At 40 to 50 days after inoculation (DAI) of sporozoites, considerably more merozoites of S. tenella were harvested from CPA (24.9 × 106 merozoites/75-cm2 flask; n = 4) than from BM (1.9 × 106 merozoites/75-cm2 flask; n = 4). Merozoites of S. capracanis were most numerous in BM at 88 to 100 DAI during which time 2.1 × 106 merozoites/75-cm2 flask (n = 4) were harvested.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: . Dividing tachyzoites of Neospora caninum were 4x3 μm and had ultrastructural characteristics typical for the cyst-forming coccidia. Unusual ultrastructural characteristics of fully-formed tachyzoites included no micropores, 8–12 anterior and 4–6 posterior rhoptries, and a few posterior micronemes. Most tachyzoites were located free in the host cell cytoplasm; only a few occurred within a parasitophorous vacuole. Parasite multiplication appeared to be rapid because most organisms were in various stages of endodyogeny. Neural tissue cysts of N. caninum were 24.3 × 19.2 μm and contained 50–200 bradyzoites (7.3 × 1.5 μm), which lacked micropores. The cyst wall was 0.74–1.12 μm thick and consisted of the primary cyst wall (the parasitophorous vacuole membrane) and a thick granular layer with electron-dense vesicles.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Sarcocysts of Sarcocystis sp. were found in 26 (50%) of 52 raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Ohio, Pennsylvania, Florida, and Maryland. Although only 4 (7.7%) of 52 cardiac muscle specimens were found to contain sarcocysts, 25% to 36.5% of tongue, diaphragm, masseter muscle, and esophagus specimens were found infected. By light microscopy, sarcocyst walls were 〈3 μm thick and had no conspicuous projections; interior septa were indistinct. By transmission electron microscopy, sarcocyst walls had short (mean = 2.7 μm), villus-like protrusions; thin septa were seen within the sarcocysts. The raccoon may be an intermediate host for a Sarcocystis sp. that completes its life cycle in an unidentified, wild carnivore.
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