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  • 1985-1989  (3)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Enzyme assays for β-glucosidase, β-acetylglucosaminidase, phosphatase, phosphodiesterase, and proteinase were made in soil samples incubated for two months after contamination with trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and dichloromethane. These volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons were added at doses of 10, 100, and 1000 μg per 100 g dry soil, respectively. Almost no effect was observed in soil sample contaminated with 10 μg of the chemicals when compared with control soil. When 100 μg of the volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons was added, the activity of β-glucosidase, β-acetylglucosaminidase and, in part, also of proteinase, was reduced during the first 28 days of incubation but returned to the same or slightly higher level than in the control soil after 2 months. Trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and dichloromethane at a concentration of 1000 μg per 100 g soil primarily inhibited activity of all enzymes under test. However, after two months, the enzymatic activities especially in soil samples contaminated with tetrachloroethylene and dichloromethane were found to be at the same or higher level than in the control soil.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-184X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A soil sample from the Ap horizon of an arable brown soil was fractionated by wet sieving, and seven size fractions of organic and mineral soil particles were separated. The organic fractions formed only 2.2% of the soil dry mass, but contained 41.5 and 29.12% of the total soil content of carbon and nitrogen, respectively, and thus represented an important reservoir of readily utilizable nutrients. Organic particles also accumulated most of the soil enzyme activities, determined asβ-glucosidase,β-acetylglucosaminidase, and proteinase activity. The highest counts of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi per gram of the soil fractions were obtained with the organic particles, but for the most part microorganisms accumulated in the silt-clay fraction. All soil fractions except the coarsest organic particles contained higher counts of oligotrophic bacteria than copiotrophic ones. Microbial counts, ATP contents, and enzyme activities decreased significantly with decrease in size of the organic soil particles, and increased with decrease in size of the mineral soil particles. Thus, the coarse organic particles 〉5 mm and the silt-clay fraction 〈0.05 mm represent the sites with the highest concentrations of microorganisms, ATP contents, and enzyme activities in the arable brown soil under test.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary The tyrosinases from Agaricus bisporus and Streptomyces eurythermus, laccases from Polyporus versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus, and peroxidase from horseradish were strongly adsorbed on different bentonites and a clay-humus complex but less to on kaolinite and quartz. The adsorption was significantly dependent on the pH, reaching maxima in the range of the specific isoelectric points; it was less influenced by the valency and type of exchangeable cations. Most of the enzymes lost their activity when adsorbed on bentonite. The activity of desorbed enzymes was distinctly diminished when compared with free enzyme preparations. Conclusions from this behaviour were drawn as to the possible use of phenoloxidases as agents to transform phenolics in soil.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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