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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes ; Punjabi Asians ; HLA-DR typing ; DQβ-gene probing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes is less common in Asian Indians than in white Caucasoids. Forty-five Punjabi Asians with Type 1 diabetes and 96 racially matched control subjects were HLA-DR typed. DR3 was increased in diabetic patients vs control subjects (82% vs 38%, p〈10−5) with relative risk 7.7 and etiological fraction 0.72. DR4 was increased in diabetic patients vs control subjects (31% vs 7%, p〈0.003) with relative risk 5.7 and etiological fraction 0.26. DR2 showed a negative association (relative risk 0.19, etiological fraction −0.28), as did DR7 (relative risk 0.21, etiological fraction −0.33). HLA-DQβ-chain gene probing using restriction enzyme BamHI in 43 diabetic patients and 90 control subjects showed that the DR1-associated 6.2 and 3.2kb fragments were less common in diabetic patients than in the control subjects (12% vs 36%, p〈0.02). A 12kb fragment was associated with DR4 in both diabetic patients and control subjects. DR3 is the major susceptibility factor for Type 1 diabetes in Punjabi Asians and DR4 is a second marker. Gene probing indicates that the same DR4 subset is associated with the condition as in white Caucasoids. DR1 and its associated DQβ restriction fragments are reduced in Asian Type 1 diabetic patients making it unlikely that DR1 haplotypes carry a predisposing factor in this racial group. We conclude that the genetic component of Type 1 diabetes in Punjabis shows differences from that of the white Caucasoid population and that the lower frequency of DR4 in this population may contribute to the lower prevalence of Type 1 diabetes.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetes ; North Indian Asians ; HLA-DR typing ; DQβ ; DQα ; DRβ-gene probing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Genetic associations with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes may be primary or secondary to linkage disequilibrium. Studies of different racial groups should allow these to be distinguished. We have reported that Type 1 diabetes is associated with HLA-DR3 and -DR4 in subjects of North Indian (Punjab) origin and now present the results of a study of HLA class II DNA polymorphisms in this group and in white caucasoid subjects. DR4 in North Indian Type 1 diabetic patients was associated with DQβ and DXα DNA polymorphisms identical to those found in DR4-positive white caucasoid patients. This DQβ/DXα pattern was increased in frequency in North Indian diabetic patients vs control subjects (33.3% vs 8.5%,p〈0.001, relative risk=5.12 (95% confidence limits: 1.96–13.4)). A DQβ polymorphism with very low relative risk for Type 1 diabetes in white caucasoid subjects was also markedly reduced in North Indian diabetic patients vs control subjects (2.3% vs 24.7%,p〈0.02, relative risk = 0.10 (95% confidence limits: 0.02–0.46)). This pattern was associated with DR2 in white caucasoid subjects, but with DRw6 in North Indians. A DR3-associated DRβ polymorphism was markedly increased in North Indian diabetic patients vs control subjects (90.2% vs 40.7%,p〈10−6, relative risk = 12.1 (95% confidence limits: 4.32–33.9)). The DQ subregion may be a primary site of genetic influence on susceptibility to Type 1 diabetes. Further studies in different racial groups will clarify the HLA associations of Type 1 diabetes.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes ; HLA-DQ ; racial studies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients and control subjects of Afro-Caribbean Negroid racial origin were investigated by serological HLA-DR-typing and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using DNA probes corresponding to the DQα, DQβ and DRβ chain genes. Combined analysis indicated that four DR antigens are positively associated with the condition in Negroid subjects — DR3, 4, 7 and w9. DR3 and 4 are also associated in Caucasians, but the relative risk for DR3 is lower in Negroid subjects. The DR7 association is specific for the Negroid race, and DRw9 is only weakly associated in Caucasoid subjects. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated a DQβ restriction pattern in Negroid subjects which is absent from Caucasoid subjects. This pattern was associated with DRw9 and a subset of DR7, and was markedly increased in frequency in diabetic patients compared with control subjects (48.7% vs 10.4%, respectively; P〈10−4). In the absence of this pattern, DR7 showed no positive association. DR3 in Negroid subjects was associated with two distinct DQα-DQβ patterns, only one of which was positively associated with diabetes. A DQβ pattern, in linkage disequilibrium with different DR antigens in different races, conferred a consistent protective effect against the development of Type 1 diabetes. Trans-racial genetic analysis thus supports a primary role for DQ in susceptibility to Type 1 diabetes.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The polymorphic HLA-DQ A1 and -DQB1 genes encode polypeptides that fold together to form a receptor that specifies T-lymphocyte recognition of self and foreign peptides8"13. DNA sequence analysis of DQ and DR genes from Caucasian patients with IDDM indicates that susceptibility to the disease ...
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 320 (1986), S. 466-466 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] FROM statistical studies, Baillie etal1 propose the re-dating, which we accept, of oak tree-ring chronologies2 referred to by us as Type A, and make suggestions, to which we here add information, concerning the provenance of the timber and the relevance of absent sapwood to the dating of artefacts ...
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Epidermis ; Acidophilic cell ; Histochemistry ; Ultrastructure ; Salmo trutta ; Salvelinus alpinus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Sacciform cells containing an acidophilic, proteinaceous secretion, were identified in the epidermis of the brown trout and Arctic char. This cell type increased in number during the chronic stages of infestation by the ectoparasitic flagellate, Ichthyobodo sp., in immature brown trout, and decreased during sexual maturation in male brown trout and char. It is suggested that the salmonid sacciform cell produces a secretion which protects the fish against infestation or damage by skin parasites.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Intravenous lidocaine was infused at 0.82 ml/min in a concentration of 1.2 mg/ml (2.3 mg/kg) for 120 min in awake chair-restrained baboons (Papio anubis), and measurements of esophageal peristalsis and LES pressure were compared before and after lidocaine or control infusions. Lidocaine produced a progressive and significant (P〈0.05) decrease in amplitude in the peristaltic wave in the smooth muscle portion of the distal esophagus during the 120-min infusion. Lower esophageal sphincter pressure was similarly significantly lower than control after the infusion of lidocaine (P〈0.05). Velocity and duration of the peristaltic wave were unchanged during the infusion. The decreased amplitude occurred during therapeutic and stable serum concentrations of lidocaine. It did not appear that the inhibitory effect of lidocaine was due to an induction of prostaglandin synthesis, because pretreatmnt of animals with indomethacin did not change the inhibitory effect of lidocaine, and serum metabolites of prostacyclin decreased during the infusion. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of lidocaine was not topical. The response to the muscarinic agonist, bethanechol was similar in lidocaine-treated animals and control animals. The preservation of a bethanechol response after lidocaine inhibition of LES pressure and distal esophageal amplitude suggests that lidocaine acts proximal to the muscarinic receptor in the esophageal body and smooth muscle portion of the lower esophageal sphincter. This study sugggest that lidocaine produces an inhibitory effect on the peristaltic wave and lower esophageal sphincter pressure that is similar to inhibitory effects described after anticholinergic agents and calcium channel blocking drugs, but intravenous lidocaine infusion requires a longer period of time to produce inhibition of muscle function.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-2576
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The in vitro effect of the herbal remedy feverfew on neutrophil function was examined. It was shown that addition of feverfew extract inhibited phagocytosis ofCandida guilliermondii and its overall killing. However, intracellular killing was not affected, suggesting that the apparent defect in total killing merely reflected the failure of uptake. The implications for the in vivo effects of feverfew are discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Monoclonal antibodies have been obtained which react with gonococcal outer membrane protein I. One antibody recognised the majority of strains expressing P.IA and another recognised the majority of strains expressing P.IB. In in vitro tests both antibodies were bactericidal in the presence of complement, opsonic for phagocytosis by human PMN and protected epithelial cells against gonococcal invasion. Thus conserved epitopes on P.I. are potentially effective targets for immunoprophylaxis.
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