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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Anthralin ; Mitochondria ; ATP ; Membrane inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation ; Electron spin resonance spectroscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Anthralin is an inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation at concentrations found in vivo. ADP-stimulated oxygen consumption is diminished. Consequently, the rate of ATP synthesis is reduced and mitochondrial ATP content declines. Neither the isolated ATPase (F1Fo-ATPase), nor the mitochondrial membrane-bound ATPase are influenced by the drug. Respiration under resting conditions is not affected. The experimental data unequivocally indicate that anthralin is not an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, as previously stated. Furthermore, the interpretation that respiratory deficiency induced in yeast strains by anthralin is a consequence of petite mutations has to be reconsidered. Under in vivo conditions, anthralin inhibits respiration per se. Our experiments, including the electron spin resonance spectroscopy, reveal that anthralin alters mitochondrial membrane structure and function simultaneously. A redox or free-radical mediated step may be involved. In consequence, inhibition of ATP production occurs which may become the limiting factor for increased cellular metabolism in psoriasis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 42 (1986), S. 380-386 
    ISSN: 1600-5724
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: A computer method for interpreting Patterson functions of crystals belonging to space groups of higher symmetry than P1 is described. A table of all Patterson peaks in the entire cell is initially searched for vectors between symmetry-related atoms. Such 'generalized Harker vectors' are identified not only by known symmetry-fixed components, but also by statistical criteria based on a systematic search for pairs of vectors which relate additional atoms to the pair involved in the generalized Harker vector. Subsequent searches, using the same basic principle, are carried out to find additional atoms. Pairs of vectors, whose components add up to the previously established Harker vector, indicate newly found atom positions after appropriate transformations into crystal space. The correctness of these atom positions can be further tested by applying all symmetry operations of the space group in question and looking for a complete set of related vectors. In contrast to many other Patterson search methods no information about known molecular fragments is requested. Also described are four structures which were solved with the IMPAS procedure following unsuccessful attempts to solve them by direct methods.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 557 (1988), S. 182-190 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Crystal Structure of the SF5--AnionThe carbanion SF5—C(CF3)2- decomposes slowly forming SF5-, and (CF3)2C=C(CF3)2. The pentafluorosulfates(IV) grow in large crystals which are stable for prolonged times in presence of a SF4 vapour pressure. Crystal structure analysis of Rb+SF5- (Pbnm, a = 776.1(14), b = 990.3(5), c = 614.1(3) pm, Z = 4) revealed the SF5- anion in the expected square pyramidal structure. The axial bond is 15.9 pm shorter than the average equatorial bonds. The sulfur atom is located below the equatorial fluorine atoms. Pure Cs+SF5--crystals seem to be notoriously twinned. Accidentally we isolated a double salt (Cs+)6(SF5-)4 (HF2-)2 (P4b2, a = 1031.7(15), c = 627.6(9) pm, Z = 1). Herein the anion SF5- has the same structure as in Rb+SF5-.
    Notes: Das Carbanion SF5—C(CF3)2- zersetzt sich langsam zu SF5- und (CF3)2C=C(CF3)2. Die Pentafluorosulfate(IV) wachsen dabei in großen Kristallen, die in Gegenwart eines SF4-Gasdruckes längere Zeit haltbar sind. Die Kristallstrukturanalyse des Rb+SF5- (Pbnm, a = 776,1(14), b = 990,3(5), c = 614,1(3) pm, Z = 4) zeigt das SF5--Anion in seiner erwarteten quadratisch-pyramidalen Struktur. Die axiale Bindung ist beträchtliche 15,9 pm kürzer als die durchschnittliche äquatoriale S—F-Bindung. Auch befindet sich der Schwefel deutlich unterhalb der Ebene, die durch die vier äquatorialen Fluoratome gebildet wird.Vom reinen Cs+SF5- konnten bisher nur Zwillingskristalle erhalten werden. Durch Zufall gelang die Isolierung eines Doppelsalzes (Cs+)6(SF5-)4 (HF2-)2. Die Kristallstrukturanalyse (P4b2, a = 1031,7(15), c = 627,6(9) pm, Z = 1), zeigt das Vorhandensein der gleichen SF5-Struktureinheiten wie im Rb+SF5-.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1435-1803
    Keywords: working rat heart ; uncoupler action
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the isolated working rat heart, the damaging effect of 0.05–0.06 μM Carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoro-methoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) was reversible within 20 sec by perfusion with fresh buffer. Cysteine 3 mM restored the aortic flow to the initial value within an additional 15–20 sec. Thereafter, the FCCP effect became irreversible due to a progressive structural membrane change. The structural change by FCCP is probably brought about by ‘internalization’ of polar groups (R-SH; R−NH3 +) of the mitochondrial (and other) membrane.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1435-1803
    Keywords: working rat heart ; hypoxia reversal
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the working rat heart we investigated heart function (aortic and coronary flow) during a normoxic, a hypoxic, and a reoxygenation phase after hypoxia. A depressed heart function was obtained by limiting oxygen supply and reducing left ventricular filling pressure (preload). After hypoxic perfusion for about 90 min, reoxygenation resulted in a 50% decrease of aortic flow. Lactate production and release increased immediately after oxygen deprivation and reached a maximum after about 35 min of hypoxia. Following reoxygenation, lactate release decreased. Lactate dehydrogenase became significant after reoxygenation. After stabilization of aortic flow at 50% in the reoxygenation phase different reagents were examined for their influence on heart performance. 1.5 mM of 2-Mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG) significantly increased aortic flow by 40%. The oxidized form of MPG (ox-MPG) at a concentration of 0.6 mM increased aortic flow by 125%. A molecular mechanism is proposed involving reorientation of the ATPase molecules at their membrane sites.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The European physical journal 30 (1986), S. 161-174 
    ISSN: 1434-6052
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We discuss in detail the supersymmetric instanton calculus of NSVZ and extend it to chiral matter fields in the, adjoint representation. The constant Green functions induced by the instanton of supersymmetricSU (2) gauge theories are calculated systematically for the cases with and without scalar vev's bigger than the scale of the gauge theory and for nonvanishing small masses of chiral fields. Oneinstanton contributions to the Green functions containing four fields without large vevs would disturb clustering; but they are argued to vanish; two-instanton effects then lead to a pattern which quantitatively agrees with factorization and the anomaly relation.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The European physical journal 35 (1987), S. 89-95 
    ISSN: 1434-6052
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We consider conformally and Kac-Moody invariant theories based on the groupsG=G(N)×G(Ñ) whereG(N) is any of the classical groups. For the valuesk=Ñ, $$\tilde k = N$$ of the Kac-Moody central charges, the monodromy problem involved in the computation of the four point function for primary fields in the defining representation ofG possesses two distinct solutions. As a consequence, the WZW theory onG (with an additionalU(1) factor ifG(N)=SU (N)) cannot be equivalent to a theory of free fermions.
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