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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Chromaffin grafts ; Dopamine denervation ; Experimental parkinsonism ; Nerve growth factor ; Rotational behavior ; Falck-Hillarp histochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Adult rat chromaffin tissue was transplanted into striatum of adult rat recipients whose nigrostriatal dopamine pathway had been lesioned on the grafted side by 6-hydroxydopamine. Long-term survival of the intrastriatal chromaffin grafts and the effects of treatment with nerve growth factor (NGF) was studied histochemically using Falck-Hillarp fluorescence histochemistry and functionally using rotational behavior induced by apomorphine. Small, cortex-free adrenal chromaffin tissue grafts survived permanently in striatum. The number of surviving cells was significantly increased by NGF. NGF treatment also caused transformation of many cells towards a more neuronal phenotype and greatly enhanced the adrenergic nerve fiber outgrowth into host brain tissue. NGF was either injected stereotaxically into the site of transplantation or infused continuously using implantable osmotic minipumps and a stereotaxically placed chronic indwelling dialysis fiber through striatum. The latter arrangement permitted continuous infusion of NGF for 14–28 days and caused a vigorous adrenergic nerve growth response by the grafts directed towards the source of NGF in the brain. There was a clearcut correlation between morphological signs of taking and rotational behavior. Grafts, and in particular grafts treated with NGF, were able to significantly and permanently counteract the rotational behavior induced by apomorphine. There seemed to be a dose relationship between NGF treatments and amount of reduction of asymmetric behavior. NGF treatment probably decreased the relative importance of diffuse release of catecholamines from chromaffin cells in the graft and increased the importance of adrenergic innervation of host striatum by cells in the graft. Immunofluorescence using antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein did not reveal any marked gliosis around the grafts nor were there any marked gliotic reactions around chronic indwelling dialysis fibers. We conclude that implantation of chromaffin tissue into striatum in conjunction with NGF treatments is an effective means of counteracting some of the symptoms of experimentally induced unilateral parkinsonism in rats.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Basal ganglia ; Dopamine ; Dynorphin ; Substance P ; 6-hydroxy-dopamine ; Ibotenic acid ; Rotational behaviour ; Intracerebral dialysis technique ; Feedback regulation ; Efferent pathways
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the present study the functional role of the striato-nigral dynorphin and substance P pathways in rat brain has been studied using the rotational behavioural model and an intracerebral dialysis technique complemented with brain lesions and immunohistochemical analysis. Attempts were made to evaluate whether these striato-nigral neurons have a feed-back modulatory action on the dopaminergic nigro-striatal system, or whether they represent an outflow pathway conveying motor information from the striatum. Unilateral injection of dynorphin A into the substantia nigra reticulata of naive rats induced contralateral rotational behaviour. This effect was dose-dependent and mimicked by the kappa-opioid receptor agonist, U50,488H. Intranigral injection of substance P, as well as substance K, also produced dose-dependent contralateral rotational behaviour. Unilateral injections of ibotenic acid into various sites of the striatum were used to destroy the striato-nigral pathways. The lesions produced a depletion of dynorphin- and substance P-like immunoreactivity in the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra ipsilateral to the lesion and markedly affected the behavioural responses to intranigral peptide injections. Dynorphin A more potently induced contralateral rotation in the lesioned compared to naive non-lesioned rats, suggesting development of supersensitivity for this peptide. Substance P on the other hand, was markedly less potent in inducing rotation in lesioned animals. The rotational responses to both dynorphin A and substance P were potentiated by injection of amphetamine 1 h later, suggesting that both peptides act via nigro-striatal dopamine neurons. However, in rats with unilateral nigro-striatal dopamine denervation, produced with 6-hydroxy-dopamine, dynorphin A retained its potency to induce rotational behaviour; substance P was again much less potent. Thus, both the ibotenic acid and 6-hydroxy-dopamine lesions differently affect the action of dynorphin A and substance P in the zona reticulata of the substantia nigra. The data suggests that substance P requires an intact dopamine pathway to produce the rotational response, while dynorphin A does not. Direct evidence that behavioural activation produced by dynorphin A is not dependent upon dopamine stimulation was obtained by intrastriatal dialysis experiments in which changes in striatal dopamine release were measured following intranigral injection of dynorphin A or substance P. Intranigral dynorphin A in fact reduced, while substance P increased the release of dopamine. It is concluded that the dynorphin and substance P striatonigral pathways have different functions. Thus, substance P in the striato-nigral pathway may have a role in a positive feed-back loop regulating the firing of nigro-striatal dopamine neurons, while dynorphin might be important in negative feed-back control. The rotational behaviour produced by DYN A is probably due to direct stimulation of receptors located on nigro-thalamic and nigro-tectal pathways.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Basal ganglia ; Transmitters ; Neuropeptides ; GABA ; Enkephalin ; Striato-nigral pathways
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of striatal ibotenic acid lesions on dynorphin-, substance P- and enkephalin-like immunoreactivities in the substantia nigra has been studied with immunohistochemistry as well as biochemistry. A comparison was made with the effects produced by intranigral ibotenic acid lesion and by 6-hydroxy-dopamine injection into the medial forebrain bundle. In addition, the effect of the striatal lesions on nigral glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-positive structures was analysed with immunohistochemistry. The effect of the lesions was analysed functionally in the Ungerstedt rotational model, in order to obtain a preliminary evaluation of the extent of the lesions. The striatal lesions produced a parallel depletion of dynorphin and substance P levels in the substantia nigra, pars reticulata, ipsilateral to the treated side, which was dependent upon the extent and location of the lesion. Ibotenic acid lesions into the tail and the corpus of the striatum produced stronger nigral-peptide depletion than lesions in the head and the corpus of the striatum. Comparison of placement of lesions and localization of depleted area in the substantia nigra revealed a topographical relationship. Furthermore, the nigral depletion patterns of dynorphin and substance P were similar. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that also GAD-positive fibers in the pars reticulata to a large extent disappeared after striatal lesions, in parallel to the dynorphin- and substance P-positive fibers. However, the depletion was less pronounced for GAD than for the peptides, probably related to presence of local GABA neurons in the zona reticulata of the substantia nigra. These results indicate that with the types of lesion used in this study it is not possible to provide evidence for a differential localization within the striatum of dynorphin-, substance P- and GABA-positive cell bodies projecting to the substantia nigra. The radioimmunoassay showed that (Leu)- but not (Met)-enkephalin was affected to the same extent as the dynorphin peptides, supporting the view that (Leu)-enkephalin in the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra is derived from proenkephalin B and not from proenkephalin A. In the immunohistochemical analysis (Met)-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity could only be detected in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra and did not seem to be affected by any of the lesions. The striatal lesions produced a behavioural asymmetry, which could be disclosed by stimulating the rats with apomorphine, which produced ipsilateral rotation. The total number and intensity of the rotation were closely correlated to the extent and location of the striatal lesion as well as to the amount of dynorphin and substance P depletion found in the substantia nigra of the treated side. The results provide further evidence for the presence of a dynorphin-containing system with fibers originating mainly in the corpus and tail of the striatum and terminating in the zona reticulata of the substantia nigra and may, similarly to the previously characterized substance P and GABA containing pathways, have a role in the control of motor behaviour.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Dopamine ; Glutamic acid decarboxylase ; In situ hybridization ; Basal ganglia ; Fronto-parietal cortex
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In situ hybridization histochemistry and RNA blots were used to study the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNA in rats with or without a unilateral lesion of midbrain dopamine neurons. Two populations of GAD mRNA positive neurons were found in the intact caudate-putamen, substantia nigra and fronto-parietal cortex. In caudate-putamen, only one out of ten of the GAD mRNA positive neurons expressed high levels, while in substantia nigra every second of the positive neurons expressed high levels of GAD mRNA. Relatively few, but intensively labelled neurons were found in the intact fronto-parietal cerebral cortex. In addition, one out of six of the GAD mRNA positive neurons in the fronto-parietal cortex showed a low labeling. On the ipsilateral side, the forebrain dopamine deafferentation induced an increase in the number of neurons expressing high levels of GAD mRNA in caudateputamen, and a decrease in fronto-parietal cortex. A smaller decrease was also seen in substantia nigra. However, the total number of GAD mRNA positive neurons were not significantly changed in any of these brain regions. The changes in the levels of GAD mRNA after the dopamine lesion were confirmed by RNA blot analysis. Hence, midbrain dopamine neurons appear to control neuronal expression of GAD mRNA by a tonic down-regulation in a fraction of GAD mRNA positive neurons in caudate-putamen, and a tonic up-regulation in a fraction of GAD mRNA positive neurons in fronto-parietal cortex and substantia nigra.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Human atherosclerotic plaque ; Phenotypic characterization of cell types ; Monoclonal antibodies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Sections of human atherosclerotic plaques, obtained from 21 autopsy cases with various degrees of atherosclerosis, were stained with the indirect immunoperoxidase technique using specific monoclonal antibodies against macrophages and smooth muscle cells. Distinctive results were found in differing stages: Single blood monocytes were observed in diffuse intimal thickening and the foam cells seen in fatty streaks were mostly identified as mature tissue macrophages, while only very few blood monocytes were present. The spindle cells observed in fibroelastic plaques showed positive reactions to antibodies against desmin, which points to their derivation from smooth muscle cells, whereas only a few macrophage-derived foam cells were seen in these lesions. In the complicated lesions the majority of foam cells were macrophage-derived, but there was also a small number of foam cells positive to antibodies against desmin, suggesting a smooth muscle cell derivation. - Our results confirm that in human atherosclerotic plaques the majority of the foam cells are obviously macrophage-derived, which emphasizes the important role of macrophages in the morphogenesis of these lesions.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0509
    Keywords: Cystic duct ; Bile duct obstruction, extrahepatic ; Cholecystitis ; Gallbladder ; Cholelithiasis ; Cholecystography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract An obstructing cystic duct stone was dislodged with an angiographic catheter and guidewire via a percutaneous cholecystostomy tract in a mildly sedated patient. After brief stenting of the cystic duct, the patient remained asymptomatic with internal bile drainage. When endoscopic negotiation of the cystic duct is difficult, an impacted cystic duct stone can sometimes be dislodged with standard angiographic techniques.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Prophylaxis for acute GVHD ; Cyclosporin A ; MTX + folinic acid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fifty-seven patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation were randomly assigned to receive either cyclosporin A (CsA, n=26) or methotrexate, followed by rescue with folinic acid (MTX + FA, n=31) as prophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). All patients but one receiving CsA had evidence of sustained engraftment, and there was no difference between the two groups on the day in which marrow engraftment was documented. Oropharyngeal mucositis was of similar incidence and severity in the two groups. In contrast, patients receiving CsA showed higher renal and hepatic toxicity rates than those treated with MTX + FA. Severe-to-moderate acute GVHD (grades II–IV) was documented in 12 patients receiving CsA and in 12 treated with MTX + FA. The cumulative incidence of this complication was similar in both groups (46.1% and 38.7%). Similarly, there was no difference in the incidence of chronic GVHD. The leukemic relapse rates were also comparable, as well as the estimated probability of survival, which was 55% in patients treated with MTX + FA and 41% in those who were given CsA. We conclude that MTX + FA is as effective as CsA in the prevention of GVHD, with the additional advantage of reduced renal and hepatic toxicities.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Placenta ; glucose transfer ; insulin ; rat fetus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary There is controversy concerning the possible modulation of glucose transfer to the fetus by insulin acting on the maternal side of the placenta. To study this question, 20.5 day pregnant rats were infused simultaneously with (U-14C)-D-glucose (via the jugular vein) and with different doses of insulin (via the left uterine artery) so that placentas from the left uterine horn were exposed to a higher insulin concentration than those from the right uterine horn. Placentas and fetuses from each uterine side were processed separately. No differences were detected in total blood radioactivity, plasma-14C-glucose,-14-C-lactate, -glucose, or -radioimmunoassayable insulin in fetuses from the left versus the right uterine horn. Total placenta radioactivity and 14C-glycogen were also similar in the left and right uterine sides at all insulin doses studied. Infusion of insulin (66 mU/min) to the pregnant rat caused hyperinsulinaemia and hypoglycaemia, decreased blood total radioactivity and plasma 14C-glucose, and increased plasma 14C-lactate in the mother. The level of fetal plasma 14C-glucose paralleled that of the mother. It is concluded that in the rat, placental glucose uptake, its transfer to the fetus, and fetal glucose utilization are not directly affected by maternal circulating insulin. Metabolic changes occurring in fetuses of hyperinsulinaemic mothers are secondary to the decreased availability of glucose.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Plasma glucagon immunoreactivity ; plasma glucagon-like immunoreactivity ; Type 1 diabetes ; oral glucose tolerance test ; plasma gel filtration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Biogel P-30 filtration of plasma from Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients and normal subjects in basal state and after an oral glucose load was assayed with a C-terminal (30 K) and a glucagon-like immunoreactivity-cross-reacting antiserum (R8). Up to four immunoreactive peaks of approximate molecular sizes of 〉20,000 (fraction I), 9000 (fraction II), 3500 (fraction III) and 2000 (fraction IV) were detected with the two antisera in both groups. In the basal state, the only significant difference observed between both groups was a higher R8-reactivity in fraction II in the group of diabetic patients, although the R 8 minus 30 K values for this fraction did not show a significant difference between both groups. After glucose the only significant differences were an increase of R8-reactivity in fraction II in both groups (p〈0.01) and a decrease of 30 K-reactivity in fraction III (IRG3500) in normal subjects (p〈0.05). In seven out of 12 diabetic patients, 30 K-reactivity in fraction II (IRG9000) and III (IRG3500) increased above their basal values. The gut-glucagon-like immunoreactivity response to oral glucose (ΔR8-Δ30 K values in fraction II) was similar in both the diabetic and normal subjects. These results indicate that (1) the paradoxical rise in plasma immunoreactive glucagon after oral glucose in diabetic patients may be due to an increase of both IRG3500 and/or IRG9000, (2) the gut-glucagon-like immunoreactivity released during glucose absorption has a molecular weight of approximately 9000, and (3) no differences in plasma gut-glucagonlike immunoreactivity were observed in Type 1 diabetic patients when compared with normal subjects, either in the basal state or after glucose ingestion.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Following the observation of antitumor activity for the combination of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin in metastatic colorectal carcinoma, the combination of 5-FU and iproplatin was tested, also in colorectal carcinoma, in the hope of attaining equivalent activity without the nephrotoxicity observed with 5-FU/cisplatin. However, no responses were achieved with 5-FU/iproplatin.
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