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  • 1
    ISSN: 1520-4804
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary While standard Giemsa banding is generally adequate for amniotic fluid chromosome analysis, small deletions, duplications, or translocation breakpoints involving Gnegative bands may be difficult to appreciate. We report a method for producing high resolution R banding in human amniotic fluid cultures using the BrdU-Hoechst 33258-Giemsa (RBG) technique. RBG banding can be useful in confirming and precisely defining structural abnormalities in amniotic fluid cultures.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The effect of a single oral 750 mg/kg dose of tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) on the endogenous phosphorylation of brain and spinal cord proteins was assessed in hens during the development of and recovery from delayed neurotoxicity. Crude membrane and cytosolic fractions were prepared from the brains and spinal cords of control and TOCP-treated hens at 1, 7, 14, 21, 35, and 55 days after treatment. Brain and spinal cord protein phosphorylation with [γ-32P]ATP was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), autoradiography, and microdensitometry. TOCP administration conferred calcium and calmodulin dependence on the phosphorylation of a few brain cytosolic proteins and caused an increase in the phosphorylation of a number of other cytosolic and membrane proteins. This effect of TOCP was large in magnitude, and its time course reflected the onset of and recovery from the signs of ataxia and paralysis associated with delayed neurotoxicity in the hen. The molecular weights (Mr) and maximal phosphorylation (percent of control) for the most prominently affected bands were as follows: brain cytosol—50K (183%), 55K (575%), 60K (529%), 65K (273%), and 70K (548%); brain membranes—50K (622%) and 60K (697%); and spinal cord cytosol—20K (182%). The role of endogenous phosphorylation reactions in and their potential usefulness as biochemical indicators of delayed neurotoxicity are being explored further.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Diets enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fish oils, predominantly eicosapen-taenoic acid, are associated with a lower risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease. These oils purportedly reduce plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol and impair platelet aggregation. Recently, the present authors reported that rats fed a marine oil-enriched diet had significantly reduced levels of lyso-PAF, the immediate precursor of platelet-activating factor (PAF). As PAF has potent vasodilator and pro-aggregatory properties, the purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that fish oils affect the biosynthesis of PAF in man.2. Supplementation of a normal diet for 3 weeks with fish oil containing the equivalent of 2.7 g of eicosapentaenoic acid daily, increased the eicosapentaenoic acid content of platelet phospholipids as well as depleting the arachidonic acid. Platelet aggregation to PAF (measured in whole blood by impedance aggregometry) was significantly impaired and whole blood thromboxane suppressed.3. Two weeks after ceasing supplements, platelet aggregation remained impaired although thromboxane had reverted to baseline levels. There was a transient but significant fall in whole blood lyso-PAF apparent within 2 days of commencing supplements but returning to baseline levels by the end of the treatment period. Whole blood PAF followed a similar trend.4. The effects of dietary fish oil on whole blood aggregations to PAF, on thromboxane and plasma lyso-PAF levels may be relevant to the prevention of vascular disease and the treatment of disorders in which PAF could be an inflammatory mediator.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. This study investigates the effect of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in the form of ‘Max EPA’ fish oil, on leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production in ionophore-stimulated rat leukocytes. Male Wistar rats (200–250 g) were fed for 3 weeks on a synthetic chow supplemented with either 10% by weight Max EPA oil or a coconut oil/safflower oil mixture.2. The EPA-rich diet significantly increased the EPA content of leukocyte phospholipids and decreased the arachidonic acid level by 35% (P 〈 0.001) compared with the control diet.3. The concentration of leukotrienes in the ionophore (A23187) stimulated leukocytes was measured by reverse-phase HPLC using prostaglandin B2 as the internal standard. The EPA-supplemented diet caused a 50% decrease in LTB4 production (P 〈 0.001) and a concomitant increase in the formation of the biologically less active LTB5 compared with the control diet. The amount of LTB4 and LTB5 produced by stimulated leukocytes closely resembled the changes in arachidonic acid and EPA content of leukocyte phospholipids.4. Thromboxane B2 (TxB2) production in stimulated leukocytes from the EPA-fed animals was also decreased compared with the control group.5. Although the formation of platelet activating factor by stimulated leukocytes was not altered by dietary treatment, the ability of an EPA-rich diet to decrease LTB4 and TxB2 production suggests that these diets may attenuate leukocyte activity and have useful anti-inflammatory effects.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Nonparenchymal liver cells from untreated C3HeB/FeJ mice, when incubated in medium containing-10% fetal bovine serum or portal serum, produced significant amounts of interferon alpha/beta (IFNα/β). In contrast, other cell populations (spleen, mononuclear blood cells and peritoneal cells) from C3HeB/FeJ mice or nonparenchymal liver cells from other strains of mice (C3H/HeJ, germ-free C3H/HeN and C57Bl/6J) produced little or no detectable IFN in fetal bovine serum under the same culture conditions. The cells in the nonparenchymal liver cell population responsible for IFNα/β production were adherent, phagocytic, silica-sensitive, carbonyl-iron-sensitive, and Thy1.2−, presumably Kupffer cells or resident liver macrophages. IFNα/β production by cultured Kupffer cells was not observed if medium containing fetal bovine serum or portal serum was treated with polymyxin B or if Kupffer cells were cultured in serum-free medium. This suggested that small amounts of endotoxin in fetal bovine or portal serum stimulated Kupffer cells to produce IFNα/β. Possibly, Kupffer cells are in a different state of activation/maturation than peritoneal and splenic macrophages since the sensitivity of resident Kupffer cells from C3HeB/FeJ mice to the stimulatory effects of endotoxin. The endogenous production of IFNα/β by Kupffer cells from C3HeB/FeJ mice can augment liver-associated natural killer (NK) activity against YAC-1 cells (4 h) and induce liver-associated cytotoxic activity, not restricted by the major histocompatibility complex, against NK resistant P815 mastocytoma cells (18 h).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Pseudomonas acidovorans ; Cell-wall ; Surface layer ; 3-Dimensional reconstruction ; Image processing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The regular surface layer of Pseudomonas acidovorans was investigated by computer processing of a series of tilted view electron micrographs, and a reconstruction of the three-dimensional structure was obtained. The pattern is tetragonal and consists of massive identical subunits, block-like in face-view, which interlock loosely in a simple “cobblestone” pattern. The square unit cell has a lattice constant of 11 nm. The surface layer pattern of P. acidovorans appears to be more dependent on the underlying membrane for maintaining its integrity than those so far studied in other bacteria.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1600-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Recent reports have suggested that the use of smokeless tobacco is increasing in adolescents, and is particularly high in Native Americans, causing concern about possible effects on oral health. In this study, 226 Navajo Indians, aged 14–19, were interviewed regarding their use of smokeless tobacco (ST), cigarettes, and alcohol. Midbuccal and mesiobuccal sites on all fully erupted permanent teeth (excluding third molars) were examined for the presence of gingival bleeding, gingival recession, calculus, and loss of periodontal attachment. The oral mucosa was examined for evidence of leukoplakia. 64.2% (145) of the subjects (75.4% of the boys and 49.0%. of the girls) were users of ST. Of these, over 95% used snuff alone or in combination with chewing tobacco. 55.9% used ST one or more days per week. 52.2% consumed alcohol, usually beer or wine, and 54.0% smoked cigarettes. 25.5% (37) of the users and 3.7% (3) of the non-users had leukoplakia. The duration (in years) and frequency of ST use (days per week) were highly significant risk factors associated with leukoplakia. However, the concomitant use of alcohol or cigarettes did not appear to increase the prevalence of these lesions. No consistent relationship was observed between the use of ST and gingival bleeding, calculus, gingival recession, or attachment loss, either when comparing users to non-users or when comparing the segment where the tobacco quid was habitually placed to a within-subject control segment. In view of these results, there is little doubt that smokeless tobacco is significantly related to the etiology of leukoplakia. As some evidence exists that smokeless tobacco use is a significant risk factor associated with oral carcinoma, intervention programs to discourage the use of smokeless tobacco by adolescents should be a public health priority.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 342 (1989), S. 526-529 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Leg 113 of the Ocean Drilling Program (OOP) drilled at two sites at 65á° S on Maud Rise, Antarctica. Together, the two sequences provided a nearly continuous record of biogenic sedimentation through the Cenozoic and late Mesozoic14. Hole 690C, on the flank of Maud Rise, contains a ...
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 342 (1989), S. 53-55 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The observed variability of atmospheric flow at low frequen-cies may be due either to the inherent, internally generated unsteadiness of that flow, or to external influences in the form of varying boundary forcing, changing solar radiation or to changes of atmospheric composition. The relative ...
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