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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: Keratinocytes ; Interferon-gamma ; Class II antigens
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Explanted human keratinocytes exposed in vitro to recombinant interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) were investigated for the appearance of mRNA for HLA-DR. Using in situ hybridization with a (35S)UTP-labelled HLA-DRβ cRNA probe, mRNA-positive cells were detected already within 6 h with maximal numbers of positive cells as well as the amount of mRNA per cell after 48 h. The corresponding protein HLA-DR, as analysed by immunoperoxidase staining, was detected on 20%–40% of the cells after 24 h and on almost all cells within 48 h. The expression of HLA-DQ and-DP antigens were always exceeded by that of HLA-DR. Whereas an increase in the concentration of IFN-γ above 50 U/ml did not affect the maximal level of HLA-DR reactive cells, there was a fourfold increase in the frequency of cells reactive with HLA-DQ and a twofold increase for HLA-DP when the IFN-γ concentration was raised from 50 to 500 U/ml. When IFN-γ was withdrawn from the cultures, HLA-DR mRNA and protein synthesis ceased — indicating the continuous need for IFN-γ to maintain the HLA-DR synthesis in keratinocytes.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-3916
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Anhand einer in situ ausgeführten Knochen-Vital-Mikroskopie konnte bewiesen werden, daß ein auf den Kaninchenschenkel ausgeübter Manschettendruck von 300 mm Hg ausreicht, um einen vollkommenen vaskularen Stillstand in der Tibia-Rinde zu verursachen. Eine über 30 min durch Manschette herbeigeführte Ischaemie des Gewebes zeigte während einer Beobachtungszeit von 30 Tagen keinerlei entgegenwirkende Reaktion im Knochengewebe. Lokal verursachte isolierte drei- bzw. sechsstündige Knochen-Ischaemie zeigte Entzündungsprozesse. Bei der sechsstündigen Ischaemie wurde nach 4–6 Wochen eine Knochen-Resorption offensichtlich.
    Notes: Summary With in situ bone vital microscopy it was demonstrated that a cuff pressure of 300 mm Hg applied over the rabbit thigh is sufficient to cause a complete vascular standstill in the tibial cortex. Cuff-induced tissue ischemia applied for 30 min did not result in any adverse bone tissue reactions over a follow-up period of 30 days. Locally applied isolated bone ischemia for 3 or 6 h resulted in an inflammatory response, and 4–6 weeks after the 6-h ischemia bone resorption was evident.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: In a previous study we observed that human epidermal cell (EC) suspensions containing HLA-DR-expressing keratinocytes showed an amplified T-cell response to purified protein derivative (PPD). To evaluate further the possible immunological importance of class II transplantation antigens on keratinocytes we have compared the T-cell response to PPD in the presence of the following stimulator cells: EC suspensions from normal skin, or EC from tuberculin-reactive skin with or without removal of Langerhans' cells. The proliferation of purified T lymphocytes from peripheral blood in response to PPD in the presence of various concentrations of autologous EC was measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation on day 6. In 3 experiments out of 4 the EC from tuberculin-reactive skin, containing 28–76% HLA-DR-expressing cells as judged by immunocytochemistry (which also revealed fairly numerous HLA-DQ/ -DP-expressing keratinocytes and a slight increase in CD36- and CD4- but not CD1-expressing cells), induced a more pronounced T-cell response to PPD than did normal EC. This was not the case in the fourth experiment, in which a small number of HLA-DR- (15%) and few if any HLA-DQ-/-DP-expressing keratinocytes were found. Immunomagnetic removal of CD1-reactive Langerhans' cells from the tuberculin-reactive EC suspensions resulted in a reduction of the T-cell response to PPD, in most cases down to background level (T cells alone + PPD). This study does not support the hypothesis that HLA-DR-expressing keratinocytes can in themselves act as antigen-presenting cells.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    British journal of dermatology 115 (1986), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Recombinant rat IFN-γ was found to induce Ia antigen expression on rat keratinocytes in vivo. Strong expression of Ia antigen on keratinocytes of rat ears was produced after intradermal injections of 10 000 U IFN-γ once daily on 3 successive days. The expression was still pronounced 2 days after the last injection, but had disappeared 4 days later.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2133
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The results of treatment with topical PGE2 dispersed in hydrocolloid granules, in nine patients with chronic leg ulcers is reported. The healing process was evaluated by stereophotogrammetry, which enables objective measurements of ulcer area and volume. Ulcers in eight patients healed completely and that in the ninth, almost completely. These results suggest that topical PGE2 has a beneficial effect in the treatment of leg ulcers.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: 5-HT ; p-Chloroamphetamine ; Zimeldine ; p-Chlorophenylalanine ; Active avoidance ; Acquisition ; Nociception ; Locomotor activity ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract p-Chloramphetamine (PCA, 0.63–5 mg/kg IP) injected 30–60 min before testing produced a dose-related impairment of avoidance acquisition, prolonged reaction time in the hot-plate test and increased locomotor activity. Pretreatment with the selective serotonin (5-HT) uptake inhibitor zimeldine (10 mg/kg IP) blocked these behavioural effects. Degeneration of brain 5-HT neurons by a high neurotoxic dose of PCA (2×10 mg/kg IP) or inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase by p-chlorophenylalanine (300 mg/kg IP) also blocked the behavioural effects of PCA. There was a complete blockade of the PCA-induced avoidance deficit following pretreatment with metergoline, a central 5-HT receptor blocking agent. On the other hand, metergoline failed to block the hot-plate analgesia and the increased locomotion caused by PCA. Depletion of brain NA and DA by the tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor H44/68 did not counteract the PCA effect on avoidance or hot-plate performance, but reduced the locomotor stimulating effect. The selective NA neurotoxin DSP4 (50 mg/kg IP) or the opiate antagonist naloxone (1 mg/kg) failed to affect the PCA-induced modulations of the behaviours studied. In addition, PCA administration in doses that caused avoidance deficits, did not result in motor impairment as assessed by the tread mill test. The above results support the hypothesis that the PCA-induced impairment of active avoidance acquisition does not involve changes in nociception or altered locomotor activity. It is concluded that behavioural processes related to serotonergic neurotransmission can be independently modified, suggesting differences in the underlying 5-HT mechanisms.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Digestive diseases and sciences 32 (1987), S. 968-972 
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Keywords: blood glucose ; dilution marker ; gastric acid secretion ; obesity ; pentagastrin ; p-gastrin ; p-insulin ; sham feeding ; stomach
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Studies in animals and man suggest involvement of the vagal nerve in the pathophysiology of massive obesity. An abnormal vagal response pattern has been found in the obese rat, but corresponding functional studies in obese man are nonexistent. The gastric acid secretion was therefore examined in 13 nondiabetic grossly obese patients (average body weight 120 kg) and compared to 16 age-matched controls of normal body weight. The gastric acid response to modified sham feeding was significantly (P〈0.05) reduced in obese patients, being on average 60% of the control output. The obese patients had a higher maximal gastric acid response to graded intravenus pentagastrin, 36.6±2.9 mmol/hr, compared to 27.1±2.4 mmol/hr in controls (P〈0.05). In addition, the patients seemed to need less pentagastrin to reach a secretory plateau. Basal acid secretion rates were similar in obese and control groups. Plasma gastrin and blood glucose were not significantly different in obese patients and controls, but patients had significantly elevated plasma insulin levels. The change of plasma insulin during the sham-feeding procedure correlated with the magnitude of the secretory response in obese and control subjects. The reduced gastric acid response to vagal stimulation in the absence of impaired parietal cell function in obese patients is indicative of an association between massive obesity and altered vagal function in man.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Graded doses of topical misoprostol were examined for effects on duodenal bicarbonate output in fasted conscious rats and compared with perfusions of the H2-receptor blocker cimetidine. Chronic loops (2 cm) of the proximal duodenum were prepared in male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250 g. A thin perfusion tube was placed in the duodenal bulb, and a permanent cannula drained the distal end to the exterior. The stomach and remaining duodenum with biliary and pancreatic ducts were then reanastomosed. During tests, the loops were perfused with isotonic saline at 0.5 ml/min and samples of 15-min effluents analyzed for HCO3 − using a modified back-titration method. Drugs and stimulants were added to the perfusion fluid. Misoprostol at 10−10 M significantly (P〈0.02) elevated the duodenal HCO3 − from basal value (N=10), and concentrations of 10−10 to 4×10−4 M produced dose-dependent increases of bicarbonate secretion, with a peak output of 49±7 μmol/cm/hr. A peak response of the same magnitude, 42±4 μmol/cm/hr, is observed after 5-min exposure of the loops to 150 mm HCl. The response to a single dose of 10−4 M misoprostol was sustained, similar to the prolonged stimulatory effects of 5-min acid exposure. Perfusions of the loop with graded natural PGE2 result in similar increases of duodenal HCO3 −, but the peak may be lower and the response to a single dose is less sustained. The H2-receptor blocker cimetidine, perfused at concentrations of 10−7 to 10−4 M failed to affect duodenal, HCO3 − output. Misoprostol was a potent stimulator of HCO3 − output in the proximal duodenum of the conscious rat, and the response to a single dose was sustained. Peak outputs during misoprostol perfusion reached the same magnitude as observed after exposure of the loops to 150 mm HCl.
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