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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The distribution and concentrations of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in kidneys, renal arteries, heart, aorta, mesenteric artery and adrenal glands from aorta-ligated hypertensive rats were studied by immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay. Immunocytochemistry showed that in the hypertensive animals NPY-immunoreactive fibres were decreased in both kidney and renal artery, above and below the ligation, and in mesenteric arteries. The depletion of NPY-containing nerves in the kidney was more pronounced around the juxtaglomerular apparatus than in other areas of the organ. By radioimmunoassay, the concentrations of NPY immunoreactivity were significantly lower in the hypertensive animals when compared with the controls, (kidney: hypertensive 1.0±0.1; controls 2.0±0.2 pmol/g, mean±SEM; p〈0.05 renal artery: hypertensive 5.0±0.8; controls 12.1±2.0; p〈0.05 and mesenteric artery: hypertensive 8.6±1.9; 17.6±3.0; p〈0.01). While there were no statistically significant changes in the levels of NPY immunoreactivity in the other areas studied, there was a general trend for the level to fall in the renal artery below the ligation (hypertensive 10.6±1.5; control 15.3±2.4; p〉0.05). It is of interest that changes were observed in the vasoconstrictor peptide NPY in this commonly used model of hypertension.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Biochemistry 24 (1985), S. 5932-5938 
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 86 (1987), S. 7227-7229 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The limit of the classical image theory as applied to the problem of decay rates for molecules at metallic surfaces is critically examined. The validity of the inverse cube law is clarified with reference to recent experimental results.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: . The Taiwanese strain of Leucocytozoon caulleryi was isolated from an infected chicken in Taipei, Taiwan, and established in chickens and biting midges Culicoides arakawae from Japan. Sporogony of the strain in C. arakawae was completed on day 3 after the infective blood meals at 25°C. Sporozoites isolated from the salivary glands of C. arakawae on days 3 or 4 after feeding caused infection in all the chickens inoculated. The strain showed high pathogenicity for chickens. Mortality of chickens rose with an increase in the number of sporozoites inoculated. The prepatent period for chickens inoculated with sporozoites was 14 days. Parasites appeared in the peripheral blood of chickens on day 15 and disappeared on day 26 after sporozoite inoculation. Soluble antigens were found in the sera of chickens infected with the strain between 10 and 17 days after inoculation, and homologous antibodies appeared after 17 days. Antigens prepared from sera, schizonts, merozoites, and gametocytes of the Taiwanese strain reacted with the sera of chickens infected witt the same strain or the strain isolated in Japan. The chickens that recovered from a primary infection with the Taiwanese strain demonstrated complete resistance to reinfection with the same strain or the strain isolated in Japan.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The secretion and metabolism of endogeneous neurotensin-like immunoreactivities after a test meal were studied in five healthy human subjects. Intact neurotensin and the N-terminal metabolic fragment, neurotensin 1–8, were quantified by radioimmunoassay with C- and N-terminally directed antisera in conjunction with gel filtration of plasma samples obtained at timed intervals. Both C- and N-terminal neurotensin-like immunoreactivities rose after the meal, reaching a plateau level after 20 and 30 min, respectively. During the plateau phase, which lasted for the rest of the experimental period of 180 min, the molar ratio of intact neurotensin to neurotensin 1–8 remained approximately constant at 1∶4.6. Meal-stimulated immunoreactive neurotensin appeared to be metabolized in a manner comparable to that of exogenously infused neurotensin in man. The results suggest that intact neurotensin is secreted at an approximately constant rate during the plateau phase. The relatively low plateau level of neurotensin 1–8, which has a much longer half-life than intact neurotensin in the circulation, implies that only a fraction of the secreted intact neurotensin is metabolized to neurotensin 1–8, indicating the existence of alternative pathways of neurotensin metabolism.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-8986
    Keywords: Turbulent plasma jets ; multiparticle injection ; modeling work
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Technology
    Notes: Abstract Thermal plasma processing involves complex interactions of particulates with plasmas. In previous studies (see Parts I and II of this series), an assessment of different effects has been made considering the dynamics and heat and mass transfer of a single particle immersed into a thermal plasma. The last paper of this sequence is concerned with the simulation of thermal plasma jet reactors and the effects caused by multiparticle injection. A mathematical model is proposed for the simulation of thermal plasma jet reactors, including the mixing phenomena between the jet and the surrounding gases by generalizing the governing equations for simple mixing flows. Also included is the density fluctuation effect by extending the K-ɛ model to a four-equation turbulence model combined with a probability density function. This model is internally consistent covering additional physical phenomena which are not covered by existing models. Unfortunately, its expected higher accuracy cannot be proven because of the present uncertainties associated with the input. For multiparticle injection, the simulation repeats calculations for single-particle injection, but with different initial conditions correcting the solutions by considering the coupling effects between particles and the plasma. The results indicate that (i) thermal plasmas show different mixing behavior in different gases; (ii) the density fluctuation effect is important since it causes large differences between the mass-weighted and unweighted time-averaged temperatures of thermal plasma jets; (iii) coupling effects become important when the particle loading rate exceeds half of the plasma mass flow rate; (iv) there are 16 constraints imposed on the modeling work which have to be considered for establishing a base for comparison with future experimental studies.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1572-8986
    Keywords: Thermal plasmas ; particle motion ; computer experiments ; review
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Technology
    Notes: Abstract A particle injected into a thermal plasma will experience a number of effects which are not present in an ordinary gas. In this paper effects exerted on the motion of a particle will be reviewed and analyzed in the context of thermal plasma processing of materials. The primary purpose of this paper is an assessment of the relative importance of various effects on particle motion. Computer experiments are described, simulating motion of a spherical particle in a laminar, confined plasma jet or in a turbulent, free plasma jet. Particle sizes range from 5 to 50 µm, and as sample materials alumina and tungsten are considered. The results indicate that (i) the correction term required for the viscous drag coefficient due to strongly varying properties is the most important factor; (ii) non-continuum effects are important for particle sizes 〈10 µm at atmospheric pressure and these effects will be enhanced for smaller particles and/or reduced pressures; (iii) the Basset history term is negligible, unless relatively large and light particles are considered over long processing distances; (iv) thermophoresis is not crucial for the injection of particles into thermal plasmas; (v) turbulent dispersion becomes important for particle 〈10 µm in diameter.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1572-8986
    Keywords: Thermal plasmas ; heat and mass transfer ; review
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Technology
    Notes: Abstract This paper is concerned with a review of heat and mass transfer between thermal plasmas and particulate matter. In this situation various effects which are not present in ordinary heat and mass transfer have to be considered, including unsteady conditions, modified convective heat transfer due to strongly varying plasma properties, radiation, internal conduction, particle shape, vaporization and evaporation, noncontinuum conditions, and particle charging. The results indicate that (i) convective heat transfer coefficients have to be modified due to strongly varying plasma properties; (ii) vaporization, defined as a mass transfer process corresponding to particle surface temperatures below the boiling point, describes a different particle heating history than that of the evaporation process which, however, is not a critical control mechanism for interphase mass transfer of particles injected into thermal plasmas; (iii) particle heat transfer under noncontinuum conditions is governed by individual contributions from the species in the plasma (electrons, ions, neutral species) and by particle charging effects.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1572-8986
    Keywords: Heat and mass transfer ; thermal plasma ; vapor contamination effect ; analytical studies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Technology
    Notes: Abstract Heat transfer to a copper particle immersed into an argon plasma is considered in this paper, including the effects of contamination of the plasma (transport coefficients) by copper vapor from the particle. Except for cases of high plasma temperatures, the vapor content in the plasma is shown to have a considerable influence on heat transfer to a nonevaporating particle, and, to a lesser extent, on heat transfer to an evaporating particle. Evaporation itself reduces heat transfer to a particle substantially as shown in a previous paper [Xi Chen and E. Pfender, Plasma Chem. Plasma Process.,2, 185 (1982)]. Comparisons of the calculated results with those based on a method suggested in the above reference show that the simplified assumptions employed, i.e., that the surface temperature is equal to the boiling point and that plasma properties based on a fixed composition are applicable, can be employed to simplify calculations for many cases. This study reveals that a considerable portion of a particle must be vaporized before a steady concentration distribution is established around the particle.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1089-7666
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The effect of finite parallel wavenumber and electron temperature gradients on the lower hybrid drift instability is studied in the parameter regime corresponding to the TRX-2 device [Fusion Technol. 9, 48 (1986)]. Perturbations in the electrostatic potential and all three components of the vector potential are considered and finite beta electron orbit modifications are included. The electron temperature gradient decreases the growth rate of the instability but, for kz=0, unstable modes exist for ηe(=T'en0/Ten0)〉6. Since finite kz effects completely stabilize the mode at small values of kz/ky((approximately-equal-to)5×10−3), magnetic shear could be responsible for stabilizing the lower hybrid drift instability in field-reversed configurations.
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