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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Glucocorticoid hormones are known to affect limbic system structures that have high levels of specific receptors for glucocorticoids, especially the hippocampus (HIPP). To understand how glucocorticoids may affect syn-aptic transmission, we have tested the effects of adrenal removal and glucocorticoid replacement on neurotransmit-ter-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in brain slices from the rat limbic system. Adrenalectomy (ADX) caused an enhancement of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in HIPP, amygdala (AMYG), and septum (SEP). In HIPP, ADX increased the cyclic AMP response to isoproterenol (ISOP) and decreased the response to histamine (HIST). In the AMYG and SEP, ADX did not affect significantly the action of ISOP, but ADX did decrease the response to HIST in AMYG. Administration of dexamethasone or corticosterone reversed the effects of ADX on cyclic AMP accumulation in the HIPP. The dexamethasone action on VIP-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation takes place within 48 h and is most apparent in the mid-range of the VIP dose-response curve. These results demonstrate that glucocorticoids regulate neurotrans-mitter-stimulated cyclic AMP generation in a fashion that is specific, both for the neurotransmitter involved and for the brain regions affected.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7365
    Keywords: protein synthesis ; ventromedial hypothalamus ; preoptic area ; estradiol ; progesterone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In this study, quantitative assessment of the synergistic and independent effects of estradiol and progesterone on protein synthesis in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMN) and the preoptic area (POA) was accomplished usingin vitro 35S-methionine and35S-cystein labeling, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and computerized densitometry. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was implanted with estradiol (E) capsules for 6 hr and injected with progesterone (P; 0.1 ml, 5 mg/ml propylene glycol) at 20 hr. Group 3 was sham-implanted for 6 hr and injected with 0.01 ml P at 20 hr. Group 4 was sham-planted for 6 hr and injected with vehicle alone at 20 hr. All animals were sacrificed at 24 hr. A number of proteins in both VMN and POA were found to be increased or decreased in labeling by E plus P, E alone, and P alone. Two important synergistic effects of the hormones were found. First, the effects of E on labeling of several proteins in both brain regions were countered by P, and conversely, the effects of P on labeling of several proteins in both brain regions were countered by E. Second, E priming increased the number of proteins affected in labeling by P in both brain regions. Comparison of the effects of E and P on proteins in the VMN and POA indicated that the populations of proteins affected in labeling were markedly different. These results begin to clarify the mechanism in which E and P affect neuronal functioning in two regions involved in the control of reproduction and lend support to the hypothesis that gonadal steroids accomplished their action on brain tissue via a mechanism that is partly unique to the brain region.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Neurochemical research 13 (1988), S. 663-669 
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Gene expression ; steroid hormones ; receptor ; sex differences ; adaptation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Contrary to earlier belief, the genetic constitution of each cell of the body (“nature”) is subject to modulation by environmental factors (“nurture”) which act throughout the life of the organism to shape the individual characteristics. The nervous system adapts and changes with the environment that the organism experiences through genomic activity controlled by chemical messengers from other nerve cells and from endocrine secretions. The nervous system expresses receptors for a number of circulating hormones, and the location of these hormone receptors has revealed a great deal about the neuroanatomy of neuroendocrine and behavioral control processes. The brain controls the endocrine system through the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, and it responds to circulating hormones throughout each stage of life. These effects begin during early development (eg., sexual differentiation of the brain; effects of maternal or neonatal stress). They continue in adult life in response to cyclic events (eg., season of year; time of day, controlling reproduction and daily activity-sleep rhythms of behavior); and they also include the behavior of other animals which alters hormone output. Hormones also operate during the aging process and under conditions which induce neural damage such as hypoxia and stress. This overview summarizes involvement of steroid hormones of gonads and adrenals in many of these processes and also examines the features of the genomic activity which is modified by these hormones. This area of research is fruitful because it brings together molecular, anatomical, physiological and behavioral approaches in an attempt to understand the longterm plasticity of the nervous system.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-2800
    Keywords: homosexuality ; diethylstilbestrol ; prenatal hormones ; sexual orientation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Abstract Thirty women aged 17 to 30 years with documented prenatal exposure to the nonsteroidal synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) were compared to thirty women of similar demographic characteristics from the same medical clinic who had a history of abnormal Pap smear findings. A subsample of the DES women were also compared to their DES-unexposed sisters. Sexual orientation in its multiple components was assessed by systematic semistructured interviews. In comparison to both control groups, the DES women showed increased bisexuality and homosexuality. However, about 75% of the DES women were exclusively or nearly exclusively heterosexual. Nonhormonal and hormonal interpretations of these findings are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Prazosin ; Quantitative autoradiography ; Noradrenergic system ; α 1-Adrenergic receptor ; Japanese quail ; Coturnix coturnix japonica (Aves, Phasianiformes)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The neuroanatomical distribution of α 1-adrenergic receptors was studied in Japanese quail by quantitative in vitro autoradiography using the specific antagonist [3H]prazosin as the ligand. The presence of saturable (Bmax 〈200 fmol/mg protein) high affinity (Kd 〈 0.12 nM) binding sites was detected by saturation analysis. High concentrations of [3H]prazosin binding sites were detected in the archistriatum/pars ventralis, the hippocampus, the cortex piriformis, the area corticoidea dorsolateralis, the dorsal thalamus, and the nucleus praetectalis. Lower concentrations were seen in the intercollicular nucleus, the lateral septum, and the posterior and tuberal hypothalamus. Very little binding was seen in the preoptic and anterior hypothalamic areas. The relatively high number of binding sites identified in the telencephalic structures agrees well with previous mammalian studies. This is in contrast with the pattern in the anterior hypothalamus where, in mammals, a number of nuclei have been reported to contain a high receptor density.
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