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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Current genetics 10 (1986), S. 823-833 
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Inverted repeat ; Gene order ; Chloroplast genome arrangement ; Vascular plant
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We have constructed the first physical map of a gymnosperm chloroplast genome and compared its organization with those of a fern and several angiosperms by heterologous filter hybridization. The chloroplast genome of the gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba consists of a 158 kb circular chromosome that contains a ribosomal RNA-encoding inverted repeat approximately 17 kb in size. Gene mapping experiments demonstrate a remarkable similarity in the linear order and absolute positions of the ribosomal RNA genes and of 17 protein genes in the cpDNAs of Ginkgo biloba, the fern Osmunda cinnamomea and the angiosperm Spinacia oleracea. Moreover, filter hybridizations using as probes cloned fragments that cover the entirety of the angiosperm chloroplast genome reveal a virtually colinear arrangement of homologous sequence elements in these genomes representing three divisions of vascular plants that diverged some 200–400 million years ago. The only major difference in chloroplast genome structure among these vascular plants involves the size of the rRNA-encoding inverted repeat, which is only 10 kb in Osmunda, 17 kb in Ginkgo, and about 25 kb in most angiosperms. This size variation appears to be the result of spreading of the repeat through previously single copy sequences, or the reverse process of shrinkage, unaccompanied by any overall change in genome complexity.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Inverted repeat ; Colinearity ; Flip-flop recombination ; Fern chloroplast DNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The evolution and recombination of chloroplast genome structure in the fern genus Osmunda were studied by comparative restriction site mapping and filter hybridization of chloroplast DNAs (cpDNAs) from three species — 0. cinnamomea, 0. claytoniana and 0. regalis. The three 144 kb circular genomes were found to be colinear in organization, indicating that no major inversions or transpositions had occurred during the approximately 70 million years since their radiation from a common ancestor. Although overall size and sequence arrangement are highly conserved in the three genomes, they differ by an extensive series of small deletions and insertions, ranging in size from 50 bp to 350 by and scattered more or less at random throughout the circular chromosomes. All three chloroplast genomes contain a large inverted repeat of approximately 10 kb in size. However, hybridizations using cloned fragments from the 0. cinnamomea and 0. regalis genomes revealed the absence of any dispersed repeats in at least 50% of the genome. Analysis with restriction enzymes that fail to cleave the 10 kb inverted repeat indicated that each of the three fern chloroplast genomes exists as an equimolar population of two isomeric circles differing only in the relative orientation of their two single copy regions. These two inversion isomers are inferred to result from high frequency intramolecular recombination between paired inverted repeat segments. In all aspects of their general organization, recombinational heterogeneity, and extent of structural rearrangement and length mutation, these fern chloroplast genomes resemble very closely the chloroplast genomes of most angiosperms.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Current genetics 11 (1987), S. 565-570 
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Restriction map ; Circular chromosome ; Recombination repeat ; Inversion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Restriction mapping studies reveal that the mitochondrial genome of white mustard (Brassica hirta) exists in the form of a single circular 208 kb chromosome. The B. hirta genome has only one copy of the two sequences which, in several related Brassica species, are duplicated and undergo intramolecular recombination. This first report of a plant mitochondrial DNA that does not exist in a multipartite structure indicates that high frequency intramolecular recombination is not an obligatory feature of plant mitochondrial genomes. Heterologous filter hybridizatios reveal that the mitochondrial genomes of B. hirta and B. campestris have diverged radically in sequence arrangement, as the result of approximately 10 large inversions. At the same time, however, the two genomes are similar in size, sequence content, and primary sequence.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Restriction maps ; Gene organization ; Chloroplast DNA ; Inversion ; Asteraceae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We have cloned into plasmids 17 of 18 lettuce chloroplast DNA SacI fragments covering 96% of the genome. The cloned fragments were used to construct cleavage maps for 10 restriction enzymes for the chloroplast genomes of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Barnadesia caryophylla, two distantly related species in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). Both genomes are approximately 151 kb in size and contain a 25 kb inverted repeat. We also mapped the position and orientation of 37 chloroplast DNA genes. The mapping studies reveal that chloroplast DNAs of lettuce and Barnadesia differ by a 22 kb inversion in the large single copy region. Barnadesia has retained the primitive land plant genome arrangement, while the inversion has occurred in a lettuce lineage. The endpoints of the derived lettuce inversion were located by comparison to the well-characterized spinach and tobacco genomes. Both endpoints are located in intergenic spacers within tRNA gene clusters; one cluster being located downstream from the atpA gene and the other upstream from the psbD gene. The endpoint near the atpA gene is very close to one endpoint of a 20 kb inversion in wheat (Howe et al. 1983; Quigley and Weil 1985). Comparison of the restriction site maps gives an estimated sequence divergence of 3.7% for the lettuce and Barnadesia genomes. This value is relatively low compared to previous estimates for other angiosperm groups, suggesting a high degree of sequence conservation in the Asteraceae.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Chloroplast genome evolution ; Inverted repeat ; Inversion ; Repeated sequence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We have compared the sequence organization of four previously uncharacterized legume chloroplast DNAs - from alfalfa, lupine, wisteria and subclover — to that of legume chloroplast DNAs that either retain a large, ribosomal RNA-encoding inverted repeat (mung bean) or have deleted one half of this repeat (broad bean). The circular, 126 kilobase pair (kb) alfalfa chloroplast genome, like those of broad bean and pea, lacks any detectable repeated sequences and contains only a single set of ribosomal RNA genes. However, in contrast to broad bean and pea, alfalfa chloroplast DNA is unrearranged (except for the deletion of one segment of the inverted repeat) relative to chloroplast DNA from mung bean. Together with other findings reported here, these results allow us to determine which of the four possible inverted repeat configurations was deleted in the alfalfa-pea-broad bean lineage, and to show how the present-day broad bean genome may have been derived from an alfalfa-like ancestral genome by two major sequence inversions. The 147 kb lupine chloroplast genome contains a 22 kb inverted repeat and has essentially complete colinearity with the mung bean genome. In contrast, the 130 kb wisteria genome has deleted one half of the inverted repeat and appears colinear with the alfalfa genome. The 140 kb subclover genome has been extensively rearranged and contains a family of at least five dispersed repetitive sequence elements, each several hundred by in size; this is the first report of dispersed repeats of this size in a land plant chloroplast genome. We conclude that the inverted repeat has been lost only once among legumes and that this loss occurred prior to all the other rearrangements observed in subclover, broad bean and pea. Of those lineages that lack the inverted repeat, some are stable and unrearranged, other have undergone a moderate amount of rearrangement, while still others have sustained a complex series of rearrangement either with or without major sequence duplications and transpositions.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Gene mapping ; Rearrangements ; Chloroplast DNA evolution ; Inverted repeat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Cloned genes from tobacco, spinach, and pea were used as hybridization probes to localize 36 protein genes on the chloroplast chromosomes of four legumes — mung bean, common bean, soybean, and pea. The first three chloroplast DNAs (cpDNAs), all of which retain a large inverted repeat, have an identical gene order with but one exception. A 78 kb segment encompassing nearly the entire large single copy region is inverted in mung bean and common bean relative to soybean and non-legumes. The simplest evolutionary explanation for this difference is a 78 kb inversion, with one endpoint between rps8 and infA and the second between psbA and rpl2. However, we can not rule out a two-step re-arrangement (consisting of successive expansion and contraction of the inverted repeat) leading to the relocation of a block of six ribosomal protein genes (rps19-rps8) from one end of the large single copy region to the other. Analysis of gene locations in pea cpDNA, which lacks the large inverted repeat, combined with cross-hybridization studies using 59 clones covering the mung bean genome, leads to a refined picture of the position and nature of the numerous rearrangements previously described in the pea genome. A minimum of eight large inversions are postulated to account for these rearrangements. None of these inversions disrupt groups of genes that are transcriptionally linked in angiosperm cpDNA. Rather, the end-points of inversions are associated with relatively spacer-rich segments of the genome, many of which contain tRNA genes. All of the pea-specific inversions are shown to be positionally distinct from those recently described in a closely related legume, broad bean.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Chloroplast ; Transcription Map ; Pea ; Pisum sativumm
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A set of 53 cloned pea chloroplast DNA fragments representing approximately 90% of the chloroplast genome was used to probe Northern blots of total pea RNA, resulting in a nearly complete chloroplast transcription map. Similar analyses were performed for RNAs extracted from pea seedlings grown under several different light regimes. We have found that at least 85 kb of the 120 by pea chloroplast genome is represented as detectable transcripts. For many regions of the genome, we have detected multiple overlapping transcripts including both small, gene-sized RNAs and large transcripts covering entire gene clusters. All transcripts detected were more abundant (as a fraction of total cellular RNA) in light grown plants than in plants entirely in the dark. However, larger transcripts were generally more abundant in plants that had been exposed to only 24 h of white light (after germination in the dark) than in plants grown in continuous light. This study indicates that chloroplast genes are often grouped into multigene transcriptional units which can be cotranscribed, and that light-stimulated plastid development involves changes in the relative abundance of the overlapping RNAs of different length that result from transcription of these genes or gene clusters.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Basidiomycotina ; Molecular evolution ; Transposition ; Length mutations ; Gene order
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We constructed restriction-site and gene maps for mitochondrial DNAs from seven isolates of five species of Suillus (Boletaceae, Basidiomycotina). Each mitochondrial genome exists as a single circular chromosome, ranging in size from 36 to 121 kb. Comparisons within species and between two closely related species revealed that insertions and deletions are the major form of genome change, whereas most restriction sites are conserved. Among more distantly related species, size and restriction-site differences were too great to allow precise alignments of maps, but small clusters of putatively homologous restriction sites were found. Two mitochondrial gene orders exist in the five species. These orders differ only by the relative positions of the genes for ATPase subunit 9 and the small ribosomal RNA and are interconvertible by a single transposition. One of the two gene arrangements is shared by four species whose mitochondrial DNAs span the entire size range of 36 to 121 kb. The conservation of gene order in molecules that vary over three-fold in size and share few restriction sites demonstrates a low frequency of rearrangements relative to insertions, deletions, and base substitutions.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Promiscuous DNA ; Crucifer species ; mtDNA ; cpDNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Southern blot hybridization techniques were used to examine the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences present in the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of two Brassica species (B. campestris and B. hirta), two closely related species belonging to the same tribe as Brassica (Raphanus sativa, Crambe abyssinica), and two more distantly related species of crucifers (Arabidopsis thaliana, Capsella bursa-pastoris). The two Brassica species and R. sativa contain roughly equal amounts (12–14 kb) of cpDNA sequences integrated within their 208–242 kb mtDNAs. Furthermore, the 11 identified regions of transferred DNA, which include the 5′ end of the chloroplast psaA gene and the central segment of rpoB, have the same mtDNA locations in these three species. Crambe abyssinica mtDNA has the same complement of cpDNA sequences, plus an additional major region of cpDNA sequence similarity which includes the 16S rRNA gene. Therefore, except for the more recently arrived 16S rRNA gene, all of these cpDNA sequences appear to have entered the mitochondrial genome in the common ancestor of these three genera. The mitochondrial genomes of A. thaliana and Capsella bursa-pastoris contain significantly less cpDNA (5–7 kb) than the four other mtDNAs. However, certain cpDNA sequences, including the central portion of the rbcL gene and the 3′ end of the psaA gene, are shared by all six crucifer mtDNAs and appear to have been transferred in a common ancestor of the crucifer family over 30 million years ago. 1n conclusion, DNA has been transferred sequentially from the chloroplast to the mitochondrion during crucifer evolution and these cpDNA sequences can persist in the mitochondrial genome over long periods of evolutionary time.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Codium chloroplast DNA ; Physical ; Gene map
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary A complete physical map of the Codium fragile chloroplast genome was constructed and the locations of a number of chloroplast genes were determined. Several features of this circular genome are unusual. At 89 kb in size, it is the smallest chloroplast genome known. Unlike most chloroplast genomes it lacks any large repeat elements. The 8 kb spacer region between the 16 S and 23 S rRNA genes is the largest such spacer characterized to date in chloroplast DNA. This spacer region is also unusual in that it contains the rps12 gene or at least a portion thereof. Three regions polymorphic for size are present in the Codium chloroplast genome. The psbA and psbC genes map closely to one of these regions, another region is in the spacer between the 16 S and 23 S rRNA genes and the third is very close to or possibly within the 16 S rRNA gene. The gene order in the Codium genome bears no marked resemblance to either the “consensus” vascular plant order or to that of any green algal or bryophyte genome.
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