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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0975
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Sedimentological and biological surveys of the back-reef sediment apron of Tobacco Reef, a continuous segment of the Belizean Barrier Reef, reveal five distinct biogeological zones: (1) coralline-coral-Dictyota pavement, (2) Turbinaria-Sargassum rubble, (3) Laurencia-Acanthophora sand and gravel, (4) bare sand and 95 Thalassia sand. These zones parallel the entire 9-km reef. The distribution of these zones is related to the spatial patterns of fish herbivory, the size of bottom sediments, and the stability of the substrate. Sedimentological and hydrodynamic studies indicate that most of the sediments in this area are transported from the reef crest and fore reef during periods of storm or hurricane activity and that their size distribution is largely the result of differential transport by high bottom-water velocities during those periods.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The human homologue of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell cycle control gene cdc2 has been assigned to chromosome 10. DNA hybridization reveals that this gene is highly conserved in vertebrates. The human CDC2 gene probe detects a simple two-allele polymorphism in Taq1-digested DNA.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Prostate carcinoma ; Staging lymphadenectomies ; Metastatic prostate carcinoma ; Well-differentiated prostate carcinoma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Consecutive staging lymphadenectomies on 1046 patients with prostate carcinoma identified 275 patients with metastases in a total of 1115 regional lymph nodes. No prostate carcinomas composed entirely of single malignant glands metastasized and no patient had metastases composed entirely of single malignant glands. All prostate carcinomas that metastasized had cribriform and/or undifferentiated histological patterns in the prostate and in the metastases. These findings suggest that identification of cribriform and/or undifferentiated histological patterns, through rebiopsy or further examination of the surgical specimen, should be considered prior to subjecting patients with prostate carcinomas composed entirely of single malignant glands to therapy or procedures directed against the possibility of metastatic disease.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2323
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Le contrôle des symptômes de l'hypoglycémie grave chez les sujets porteurs d'un insulinome pancréatique occupe une place essentielle dans le traitement de l'affection. Chez 24 malades dont l'âge allait de 5 mois à 73 ans et qui furent observés dans un même centre au cours d'une période de 17 ans, les troubles qu'ils accusèrent et le retentissement de ceux-ci sur leur vie font l'objet de cette étude. Chez 18 d'entre eux la diazoxide a été employée 14 fois avant l'intervention pendant une période variable et 4 fois pendant une période prolongée. Trois de ces cas ont été étudiés particulièrement pour montrer les différents aspects bénéfiques et les différents problèmes dûs à l'emploi de la diazoxide. La diazoxide fut administrée à la dose de 400 mg par 24 heures pendant une période moyenne de 10 mois. Les résultats furent bons, moyens et médiocres dans respectivement 8, 6, et 4 cas. Les principaux effets secondaires défavorables furent l'hirsutisme (56%), l'oedème de la cheville (50%), l'augmentation du poids (38%), la nausée (11%). Ces effets secondaires furent cependant bien tolérés et au total les avantages du traitement sont supérieurs à ses désavantages. C'est seulement chez un seul malade que le traitement dû être interrompu en raison d'une hypersensibilité sévère au médicament. Ces résultats démontrent que la diazoxide possède une place dans le traitement préopératoire de l'hyperinsulinisme avant la localisation de la tumeur. Elle est aussi indiquée lorsque la chirurgie ne peut être envisagée en raison d'une contre-indication ou lorsque la laparotomie ne permet pas de découvrir la lésion.
    Abstract: Resumen El control de los síntomas hipoglicémicos es un aspecto importante en el manejo de pacientes con tumores insulares secretores (insulinomas) del páncreas. Se describe una serie de 24 pacientes con insulinomas con edades entre 5 meses y 73 años vistos en un centro médico a lo largo de un perído de 17 años. Se analizan los síntomas que motivaron su presentación y el efecto de éstos sobre los hábitos de vida. El diazóxido fue usado en el control de los síntomas hipoglicémicos en 18 de 24 pacientes. Catorce pacientes recibieron diazóxido por períodos variables antes de ser sometidos a cirugía exitosa y 4 lo han recibido como terapia de largo plazo. Tres de estos son presentados en forma destacada para demostrar diversos aspectos del beneficio y de los problemas encontrados con el uso del diazóxido. La dosis promedio de diazóxido fue de 400 mg diarios y el promedio de duración de la terapia fue de 10 meses. El control de los síntomas apareció como bueno en 8 casos, regular en 6, y pobre en 4. Los principales efectos colaterales observados fueron el hirsutismo (56%), el edema del tobillo (50%), el aumento de peso (38%), y la náusea (11%). Estos efectos colaterales fueron bien tolerados y se consideró que los beneficios de la terapia sobrepasaron las desventajas. Los efectos colaterales hicieron necesario descontinuar el diazóxido sólo en un paciente que desarrolló una severa reacción de hipersensibilidad. Nuestros resultados muestran que el diazóxido tiene un lugar definido en el manejo de pacientes con insulinoma en la localización preoperatoria del tumor y puede ser utilizado cuando la cirugía está contraindicada o cuando la laparotomía no ha sido exitosa.
    Notes: Abstract The control of severe hypoglycemic symptoms in patients with insulin-secreting islet tumors (insulinoma) of the pancreas is an important aspect of management. A series of 24 patients with insulinomas whose ages ranged from 5 months to 73 years seen at one center over a period of 17 years is described. The presenting symptoms and the effect of these on their lifestyles are discussed. Diazoxide has been used to control hypoglycemic symptoms in 18 of the 24 patients. Fourteen patients have received diazoxide for varying periods of time prior to successful surgery and 4 have received long-term therapy. Three of these patients are highlighted to show various aspects of benefit and problems from the use of diazoxide. The mean dosage of diazoxide was 400 mg/day and the mean duration of therapy was 10 months. The control of symptoms was good in 8, fair in 6, and poor in 4. The main side effects observed were hirsutism (56%), ankle edema (50%), weight gain (38%), and nausea (11%). These side effects were well tolerated and the benefits of therapy were felt to outweigh disadvantages. Side effects only necessitated discontinuation of diazoxide in 1 patient who developed a severe hypersensitivity reaction. Our results show that diazoxide has a role to play in the management of patients with insulinoma during preoperative tumor localization and can also be used when surgery is contraindicated or when laparotomy is unsuccessful.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2323
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Les auteurs se sont intéressés aux méthodes et aux résultats de la transplantation rénale chez le diabétique, effectuée dans un service consacré à la transplantation. Ils ne considèrent plus le diabétique comme un receveur à haut risque des lors que la transplantation est réalisée selon les méthodes les plus modernes. Le taux de la mortalité opératoire (30 jours) ne dépasse pas 3.5% et celui de la mortalité s'abaisse si une attention toute particulière est portée à l'état cardiovasculaire avant, pendant et après la transplantation. Le rein provenant d'un parent vivant représente le meilleur transplant en ce qui concerne la disponibilité, la fonction rénale après l'intervention et la fonction à long terme, cependant le rein de cadavre depuis l'emploi de la cyclosporin est susceptible de donner de bons résultats: le taux de la survie à 1 an du receveur atteint 98% et celui de la survie à 1 an du transplant est de 88%. Toutefois la proportion des pertes du transplant dues à la mort du patient consécutivement à des complications cardiaques et cérébrovasculaires reste relativement élevée chez le diabétique car elle atteint 35.8%. La récupération chez le diabétique qui a subi une transplantation rénale est moins complète que chez le sujet qui n'est pas diabétique, encore qu'elle soit toujours supérieure à celle obtenue par les autres méthodes de traitement de l'urémie chez le diabétique.
    Abstract: Resumen Las prácticas y resultados recientes en un centro de transplantes que sirve a una amplia proporción de pacientes diabéticos urémicos fueron revisados para resaltar ciertos aspectos del manejo moderno. El enfoque no es el de un recipiente de transplante renal de “alto riesgo”, sino más bien el de un recipiente que requiere una labor intensa en su manejo, por cuanto estos pacientes requieren atención a las múltiples complicaciones de su enfermedad primaria (propensión a la sepsis, retinopatía, neuropatía, enfermedad vascular central y periférica). Actualmente aceptamos todo paciente diabético que desee transplante, bajo los mismos criterios globales que se aplican a los pacientes no diabéticos. Mediante cuidadosa atención al estado cardiovascular perioperatorio, se puede lograr una mortalidad operatoria (30 días) de menos de 3.5% y minimizar la morbilidad. Los donantes intrafamiliares siguen ofreciendo ventajas en relación a la asequibilidad de los órganos, el precoz funcionamiento postoperatorio del riñón transplantado, y posiblemente, el mejor funcionamiento a largo plazo, pero ya los transplantes cadavéricos tratados con ciclosporina han revelado tasas competitivas de supervivencia del paciente a 1 año del 96% y de supervivencia del transplante a 1 año del 88%. Sin embargo, todavía la proporción de pérdida del transplante debida a muerte del paciente por causas inmunológicas, principalmente accidentes cardíacos y cerebrovasculares, sigue siendo alto en el diabético, del orden de 35.8%. La rehabilitación del diabético post-transplante es menos completa que la del recipiente no diabético, pero es claramente superior a la que se obtiene con métodos alternos de tratamiento en el paciente diabético urémico.
    Notes: Abstract The practices and recent results from a transplant center servicing a large proportion of uremic diabetics were reviewed to highlight modern management issues. The focus is taken off the diabetic as a “high-risk” renal transplant recipient and brought to bear on the laborintensive aspects of his or her management. With special attention to perioperative cardiovascular status, operative mortality (30 day) can be less than 3.5% and morbidity minimized. Living related donors continue to offer advantages in terms of organ availability, early postoperative function, and most likely long-term function, but in the cyclosporin era cadaver renal transplants have evolved competitive 1-year patient survival rates of 96% and 1-year graft survival rates of 88%. Still, the proportion of graft losses due to death of the patient from nonimmunologic causes, chiefly cardiac and cerebrovascular events, remains relatively high in the diabetic at 35.8%. Rehabilitation of the diabetic post-transplant is less complete than that of the nondiabetic transplant recipient, but is clearly superior to that of alternative modes of therapy for the uremic diabetic.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2323
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé La réparation herniaire peut être effectuée avec sécurité et rapidité par voie prépéritonéale pendant une autre opération demandant une incision médiane. Nous présentons les résultats observés dans 41 réparations prépéritonéales effectuées en même temps que 343 adénectomies prostatiques rétropubiennes et 26 cystoprostatectomies radicales. On n'a pas observé de récidive avec un suivi de 28 mois en moyenne et il n'y avait aucune complication attribuable directement à la réparation. L'anatomie prépéritonéale et la technique utilisée sont illustrées car elles permettent une réparation herniaire sûre et efficace pendant d'autres opérations urologiques.
    Abstract: Resumen La reparación de una hernia puede lograrse en forma segura y expedita en el curso de una operación pélvica radical por abordaje preperitoneal a través de una incisión mediana longitudinal. Presentamos en este artículo los resultados de 41 herniorrafias preperitoneales realizadas simultáneamente con 343 prostatectomías retropúbicas y 26 cistoprostatectomías radicales. No se halló evidencia de recurrencias herniarias ni de complicaciones después de un seguimiento promedio de 28 meses. Se ilustra la anatomía preperitoneal y la técnica que permitan realizar la reparación segura y efectiva de las hernias en el curso de procedimientos urológicos.
    Notes: Abstract Repair of a hernia can be performed safely and expeditiously during a radical pelvic operation by the preperitoneal approach through a median longitudinal incision. We present the results of 41 preperitoneal herniorrhaphies performed simultaneously with 343 radical retropubic prostatectomies and 26 radical cystoprostatectomies. There was no evidence of hernial recurrence after a mean of 28 months and no complications attributable to the hernial repairs. We illustrate the preperitoneal anatomy, and the technique, which allows the safe and efficacious performance of a hernial repair during a urologic procedure.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Experiments were performed on anaesthetized, open-chest dogs to determine the reflex effects on systemic blood pressure and heart rate produced by stimulation of the parietal pericardium with bradykinin, prostacyclin, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and arachidonic acid.2. Pericardial application of bradykinin (1 μg) consistently elicited reflex increases in blood pressure and heart rate, whereas application of prostanoids or arachidonic acid in doses up to 10 μg failed to produce any cardiovascular responses.3. Indomethacin, applied either directly to the parietal pericardium (1 μg/ml) or given intravenously (5 mg/kg) caused a long lasting reduction of the reflex responses to bradykinin. The reflex effects of bradykinin could be temporarily restored by treatment of the pericardium with either prostacyclin (0.1 μg/min) or PGE2 (0.1 μg/min). PGD2 (0.1-1 μg/min) did not influence the bradykinin induced pericardial reflex.4. Superfusion of arachidonic acid (3 μg/min) over the pericardium amplified the reflex effects of bradykinin when given before, but not when given after indomethacin treatment.5. The results indicate that locally formed prostanoids, specifically prostacyclin and PGE2, can facilitate activation of the pericardial pressor reflex by bradykinin. The findings may be relevant to the changes in cardiovascular activity occurring during pericardial inflammation.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Marsupials (infraclass Metatheria) diverged from placental mammals (infraclass Eutheria) at least 130 million years ago6, so comparisons of gene arrangements between these groups may provide information about the evolution of sex chromosomes and sex determination. Within the marsupials, the two ...
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] A meiotic map of the human pseudoautosomal region has been constructed using DNA probes isolated at random from Y-chromosome genomic libraries and probes corresponding to the gene MIC2 (refs 2 and 3). Genetic distances in the pseudoautosomal region are strikingly different when measured in male as ...
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