DNA single-strand breaks
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Summary The genotoxic potentials of benzamidine and benzamidoxime were determined to study the toxicological relevance of the metabolicN-oxygenation (N-hydroxylation) of benzamidines to benzamidoximes. Benzamidoxime induced DNA single-strand breaks (in rat hepatocytes) and DNA amplification in SV40-transformed hamster cells. In the experiments performed, benzamidine itself was only marginally positive in the hepatocyte/DNA single-strand break assay. Since these cells possess an intact metabolization apparatus, the biological activities may be attributed to toxic and genotoxic metabolites formed by biotransformation. In theSalmonella typhimurium mutagenicity test (TA 98 and TA 100) benzamidoxime alone exhibited a low mutagenicity in the TA 98 strain in the presence of rabbit liver S-9 fractions. These results permit recognition of the metabolicN-hydroxylation of benzamidines to benzamidoximes as a process to toxication. Indirect evidence for the formation of a glucuronide of benzamidoxime has been obtained from in vitro experiments, but it could not be established that this process was a decisive factor in the genotoxicity of benzamidoxime.
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