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  • 1985-1989  (6)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) was measured in the different areas and layers of the Ammon's horn and dentate gyrus of young adult (3 to 4-month-old) rats, and of 27-month-old rats with proven cognitive deficits. The LCGU was determined by quantitative [14C]2-deoxyglucose autoradiography. Compared to young animals, in the old rats the LCGU was significantly reduced by 12% to 15% in the oriens layers of CA1 and CA2, the pyramidal layers of the CA sectors 1–3, the radiatum and lacunosum-molecular layers of CA2 and CA3 and in the lucidum layer of CA3. The LCGU values of all the other layers of the Ammon's horn and the dentate gyrus did not differ significantly between young and old rats. The pattern of the LCGU reduction found in the old rats roughly resembles changes found after fimbra-fornix lesions or systemic administration of scopolamine, suggesting a functionally important deficit in the cholinergic innervation of the old rats' hippocampi.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) was measured in different regions and layers of the Ammon's horn and dentate gyrus in the conscious rat. The LCGU was determined by quantitative [14C]2-deoxyglucose autoradiography using a computerized image processing system. In the hippocampus, the various regions and layers exhibited different glucose consumptions, the lowest values being found in the alveus and the highest ones in the lacunosum-molecular layers of the dentate gyrus' external limb. Additionally, in many layers, the LCGU values of the left hemispheres were found to be higher compared with the right hemispheres. The analysis of LCGU changes in rostrocaudal direction revealed, that in sector 1 of Ammon's horn and in the dentate gyrus the glucose consumption decreased from rostral to caudal levels, whereas in sector 3 of Ammon's horn an increase was found.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the adult mammalian brain, the energy metabolism is almost entirely dependent on glucose. Furthermore, a close relationship between the energy metabolism and the functional activity could be shown. Thus, the functional activity of the brain or parts thereof can be quantified by measuring the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose. Studying in vivo the fate of a radioactive labeled analogue of glucose, the 2-deoxy-d-[1-14C]glucose, and using quantitative autoradiographic techniques, it is possible to estimate the cerebral glucose utilization of every discrete brain region. The advantage of the 2-deoxyglucose method is, that the local cerebral glucose utilization represents a “metabolic encephalography” (Sokoloff 1982).
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary By means of the [14C]-2-deoxyglucose method the local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) was measured in 41 brain regions in autoimmune New Zealand Black (NZB) mice and in Carworth Farm Winkelmann (CFW) mice, which served as the control strain. At the age of 6 months, the mean LCGU of all measured areas and brain stem nuclei was 67.7 μmol glucose/(100 g x min) in the nonautoimmune CFW mice. These LCGU values are within the limits published by other observers. In contrast, in the aged-matched NZB mice the glucose use was markedly reduced, the mean LCGU of all measured areas being 37.7 μmol glucose/(100 g x min). These findings suggest that the immunological, morphological and behavioural abnormalities in the aged NZB mouse correlate with a reduced functional activity of the central nervous system, measured as reduced cerebral glucose utilization.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0568
    Keywords: Ontogeny ; Primary visual cortex ; Callosal projections ; Monocular enucleation ; Plasticity ; Albino rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The cortical zone from which callosal afferents projecting to the primary visual cortex (area Oc1) originate was studied in monocularly enucleated and normal rats. The extent of this cortical strip was determined by retrograde labeling with HRP and by measurement of its width in coronal sections. Albino rats were monocularly enucleated from the 23rd ontogenetic day to the 120th and iontophoretical injections into Oc1 contralateral to the remaining eye were done more than one year after enucleation. The width of the labeled strip of perikarya in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the remaining eye was largest in neonatally enucleated rats (about 1.1 mm) and declined with increasing age at which enucleation was performed. Additionally, the perikarya of callosal afferents in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the remaining eye in rats enucleated as young adults (90th and 120th ontogenetic day) were labeled in significantly wider strips (about 0.6 mm) than in unoperated control rats (about 0.4 mm).
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Ontogeny ; Primary visual cortex ; Callosal projections ; Monocular enucleation ; Plasticity ; Albino rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Callosal afferents to the primary visual cortex (area Oc1) mainly originate in the border region between the lateral portion of the primary visual cortex (area Oc1) and the laterally positioned secondary visual cortex (area Oc2L) of the contralateral hemisphere. The extent of this region has been determined by retrograde labeling with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In normal rats the width of the retrogradely labeled cortical strip is about 0.3 mm. In rats monocularly enucleated from the 23rd up to the 44th ontogenetic day and subsequently injected as adults with HRP into Oc1 ipsilateral to the remaining eye, the perikarya of the callosal afferents from the opposite hemisphere are labeled in the form of significantly wider columns (about 0.8 mm) than in animals enucleated from the 50th ontogenetic day onwards. The latter do not differ from controls.
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