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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In order to elucidate the problem of which cells are involved in calcium transport and to estimate the role of mitochondria in calcium transport in the avian shell gland, the fine structure and the Ca-ATPase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD+-ICDH) activity of the shell gland of egg-laying Japanese quails were examined. The surface epithelial cells, consisting of ciliated cells with cilia and microvilli and non-ciliated cells with microvilli, had many large and electron-dense granules. The tubular-gland cells occupied the proprial layer and lacked secretory granules. When an egg was in the shell gland, the well-developed mitochondria of tubular-gland cells characteristically tended to accumulate in the apical cytoplasm, while they were scattered throughout the cytoplasm when an egg was not in the shell gland. Intense Ca-ATPase activity was found on the microvilli of tubular-gland cells, and moderate activity was found on the lateral-cell surface. In the surface epithelial cells, the basolateral cell surface showed moderate enzymatic activity. Both SDH and NAD+-ICDH activity were found in tubular-gland cells when an egg was in the shell gland. These results strongly suggest that calcium for eggshell calcification is actively transported by the tubular-gland (depending on Ca-ATPase activity) and that the mitochondria of gland cells may play an important role in this process as an energy source.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We isolated a mixture of β-galactoside-binding lectins from rat lung and raised polyclonal antibody against 14 kD lectin purified from the mixture of lectins. Immunoblotting of the mixture of lectins, which was separated with SDS-PAGE under reducing condition and transferred onto a NC paper, showed that the antibody reacted with two bands at 14 and 29 kD, indicating that these two lectins have common antigenic determinant(s). Immunohistochemically, the antibody recognized only bronchiolar Clara cells with intense immunofluorescence in their apical cytoplasmic protrusions where the secretory granules of the cells are known to be stored. Thus, to determine if the lectin(s) might be secreted into airways, we next raised antibody against airway secretions free from serum as well as surfactant proteins. By immunoblot analysis, the resulting antibody stained 29,45 and 55 kD bands, but not 14 kD band, on a NC paper transferred with the mixture of lectins. These findings suggest that at least 29 kD lung lectin is located in bronchiolar Clara cells and secreted by these cells into airways.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We describe a genetic polymorphism of cytosol polypeptide with mol. wt. of 38,000 detected in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Three different electrophoretic phenotypes (type 1-1, 2-1, 2-2) of the polypeptide have been identified in a Japanese population. Family and population studies indicate that three phenotypes are determined by two common alleles at a single autosomal locus. Since the polypeptide is mainly present in cytosol of cells, we propose that the polypeptide be temporarily designated as cytosol polypeptide with mol. wt. of 38,000 (CP 38) and that the gene for CP 38 be designated as CP 38. The gene frequencies of two common alleles (CP 38 1 and CP 38 2) are 0.899 and 0.101, respectively, in a Japanese population. The data on gel filtration of cytosol proteins on a Sephadex G-100 column suggest that CP 38 exists as a dimer in the cytosol. CP 38 was observed in the wide range of different cells, including B-lymphoblastoid cells, adult skin fibroblasts, HeLa cells, and erythrocytes. In 11 out of 72 individuals, the phenotypes of CP 38 were different from those of adenosine deaminase which is similar to CP 38 in subunit size, cell distribution, and allele frequencies. These data indicate that CP 38 is a new polymorphic polypeptide encoded by an autosomal locus.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Brain stem neurons ; Licking ; Mastication ; Muscle afferents ; Trigeminal nuclei ; Reticular formation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Activities of 53 neurons in the brain stem were recorded with chronically implanted fine wires in freely eating and drinking rats. Twenty units were isolated from the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus; 18 were spindle afferents and 2 periodontal afferents. The spindle units were classified into 4 types: 5 units showed rhythmical activity related only to the jaw opening phase during both licking and chewing, 8 units discharged at jaw opening phase during licking, but both at jaw opening and jaw closing phases during eating, 2 units increased phasic activity at jaw opening phase during licking, but increased tonically independent of jaw movements during eating, and the remaining 3 units responded only at jaw closing phase both in licking and eating behavior. Nine units were assumed to be alpha motoneurons isolated from the trigeminal motor nucleus; 2 innervating the temporalis muscle, 3 the masseter muscle, 2 the digastric muscle, and the remaining 2 presumably the pterygoid muscles. These units, with a mean tonic spontaneous rate of about 10 impulses/ s, showed phase-related rhythmical burst activities during licking and eating. Four units were isolated from the trigeminal main sensory nucleus. Sixteen units were isolated from the medullary reticular formation and 1 from the pontine reticular formation. Of these 16 units, 3 from the parvocellular part of the medullary reticular formation were presumably premotor interneurons, and 3 units in the “intertrigeminal region”, 2 units in the “juxtatrigeminal region”, and 8 units in the “supratrigeminal region” were responsive to multiple sensory modalities. These results demonstrate that almost all the units sampled showed characteristic rhythmic activities associated with the position of the tongue or mandible during rhythmical jaw movements.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We describe a genetic polymorphism of cytosol polypeptide with mol.wt. of 20,000 detected in lymphocytes the arythrocytes by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Three different electrophoretic phenotypes (type 1-1, 2-1, and 2-2) of the polypeptide have been identified in a Japanese population. Family studies indicate that the phenotypes are determined by two common alleles at a single autosomal locus. The polypeptide is present in the cytosol of various kinds of cells and is abundant in erythrocytes. The data on a gel filtration of the erythrocyte cytosol proteins on a Sephadex G-100 column suggest that the polypeptide exists as a dimer in cells. In nine out of 79 individuals, the phenotypes of the polypeptide were different from those of glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) which has similar properties in subunit size, cell distribution, and allele frequencies. These date indicate that the polypeptide with mol. wt. of 20,000 is a new polymorphic cellular polypeptide. We propose that the polypeptide be temporarily designated as cytosol polypeptide with mol. wt. of 20,000 (CP20) and that the gene for CP20 be designated as CP20. The gene frequencies of two common alleles (CP20 1 and CP20 2) are 0.955 and 0.045, respectively, in a Japanese population.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Hamartoma ; Heterotopia ; Hydrocephalus ; Aqueduct stenosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A 35-day-old hydrocephalic infant was found by autopsy to have a small nodular mass protruding into the aqueductal channel. The mass, approximately 2.5 mm in size along the neuroaxis and 1.9 mm in transverse plane, subependymally occupied the roof of the aqueduct. This was thought to be the cause of hydrocephalus in this infant. A review of literature on the subject has not shown any other comparable case.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
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    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 67 (1985), S. 296-299 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Parkinsonism-dementia complex of Guam ; Nucleus raphe dorsalis ; Alzheimer's disease ; Morphometry ; Neurofibrillary tangles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Recently, morphometric analysis has shown that the nucleus raphe dorsalis, which is presumed to project diffuse serotonergic fibers to the telencephalon, is affected in Alzheimer's disease. A similar study was conducted in this report in two patients with parkinsonism-dementia complex of Guam and a Guamanian control. It demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of large neurons, and the presence of abundant Alzheimer's neurofibrillary tangles in this nucleus.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Hepatic encephalopathy ; Glutamine synthetase ; Methionine sulfoximine ; Oligodendrocyte ; Astrocyte
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary To investigate the roles imposed on astrocytes for glutamate metabolism, a specific inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS), methionine sulfoximine (MSO), was repeatedly administered to rats and histopathological changes were correlated with glycogen accumulation and the immunocytochemistry of GS and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Prolonged MSO-loading (every 12 h up to three times, 100–150 mg/kg body weight) brought about the appearance of astrocytes with swollen, watery nuclei reminiscent of Alzheimer II glia chiefly in the neocortex, hippocampus and lateral thalamus after 24 h. Concomitantly, profound accumulation of glycogen ensued in the superficial three layers of the neocortex, hippocampus and pyriform cortex. GS immunoreactivity appeared enhanced in the cortex, hippocampus and lateral thalamus with parallel increase in GFAP immunoreactivity after prolonged treatment. Oligodendrocytes in the diencephalon and brain stem also normally contained GS immunoreactivity. Some animals developed necrotic lesions in the dorsolateral neocortex. The area of glycogen accumulation coincided with the known distribution ofN-methyld-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors and, thus, GS may play important roles in NMDA receptor-mediated glutamate metabolism. The Alzheimer II type changes, however, did not correlate with NMDA-receptor distribution. These results indicate certain regionalizations in the roles of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in glutamate and ammonia metabolisms.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Hirano body ; Purkinje cell ; Alzheimer's disease ; Cerebellum ; Senile plaque
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Cylindrical forms of Hirano bodies were observed in the perikaryon of a Purkinje cell in a case of Alzheimer's disease. Scattered, typical senile plaques were also seen in the cerebellar cortex.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ; Chromatolysis ; Ultrastructure ; Motor neuron disease ; Hyaline intraneuronal inclusions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Ultrastructural features of chromatolytic neurons observed in a sporadic case with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are reported. A 70-year-old woman died of weakness and atrophy of the four limbs, bulbar and facial muscles, and hyperreflexia, of 3 1/2 years' duration. Neuronal loss was marked in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, with degeneration of the pyramidal tracts. Most of the remaining neurons showed chromatolysis. Some of the chromatolytic neurons contained faintly eosinophilic inclusions with a halo. Few spheroids were observed. Hypoglossal nuclei, nucleus ambiguus, motor nuclei of N. VII and N.V were well populated, but contained several chromatolytic neurons. Ultrastructurally, the chromatolytic neurons contained aggregates of fibrils thicker than the 10-nm neurofilaments. These fibrils were arranged randomly, and were closely associated with granular materials as well as rough endoplasmic reticulum. Neurofilamentous accumulations reported to be common in sporadic ALS were rare in this case. No Bunina body was observed.
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