Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Restructured beef steaks were processed from USDA Select chuck muscles without the use of additives, and three processing variables were utilized at three different levels: -2, 0, +2C for mixing temperature, 12, 18, 24 min for mixing time and 1, 2, 3 passes through a kidney plate for particle size reduction. A sensory panel composed of 149 untrained consumer panelists evaluated the 27 treatment combinations for five sensory attributes. Instrumental determinations were also made. Increasing mixing temperature and decreasing particle size significantly decreased sensory tenderness, flavor and overall acceptance and increased instrumental hardness and springiness of the restructured beef steaks. Increasing mixing time had a significant effect on sensory appearance and on instrumental cohesiveness and gumminess. The means for sensory scores were used for a response surface analysis (RSM) to optimize the three processing variables. Significant models were found for tenderness (P〈0.05), overall acceptance (P〈0.05) and flavor (P〈0.15). Using a sensory score of 6.00 (like slightly) as an acceptable score, optima for the processing variables were determined. To obtain an acceptable product, the meat should be ground by two passes through the kidney plate then mixed at a maximum temperature of 0.67C for 12 min.
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