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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A monoclonal antibody raised to gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) has been compared with conventional rabbit and guinea-pig antisera to GIP. Four staining methods were tested and of these the peroxidase antiperoxidase (PAP) method proved to give the best results with both the mouse and rabbit antibodies. The monoclonal antibody, when used to stain pancreatic tissue, gave negative results whereas a distinct population of gut endocrine cells was readily demonstrable, suggesting that GIP is not a constituent of the mammalian pancreas. The monoclonal antibody was found to be the most sensitive for immunocytochemistry achieving the titre of 1:106 in rat gut. A C-terminal specific antibody, with a high affinity and avidity to GIP, it was clearly the preferred antibody for immunocytochemical studies.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The polypeptide hormone GIP has been localized ultrastructurally by using specific, monoclonal GIP antibodies and an immunogold technique on aldehyde-osmium fixed specimens of dog duodenal mucosa. A single type of cell showing round, homogeneous, fairly osmiophilic granules with closely applied membrane and a mean size of 188 nm±34 SD has been identified as the GIP cell.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Theoretical and applied genetics 62 (1982), S. 361-367 
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris ; Lectins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The relationship between the polypeptide composition and the agglutination behaviour of the lectin-containing G2/albumin protein groups has allowed the identification of the active lectin polypeptides in different cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris (Brown et al. accompanying paper). These results were used to ascertain the particular G2/albumin group contained in the various lectin sources used previously for the purification of lectin proteins. Many studies were found to have included lectin sources which contained the same G2/albumin pattern (TG2) and this common denominator has permitted the direct comparison of the properties reported for these purified lectins. Thus, much of the extensive literature on bean lectins is concurred.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris ; Phaseolin ; Seed proteins ; Electrophoresis ; Linkage
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The inheritance of phaseolin and globulin-2 (G2)/albumin polypeptides was investigated in crosses involving varieties which exhibited the three electrophoretic banding patterns of phaseolin found in French bean. ‘Total’ seed protein extracts of single seeds of the F1 and F2 generations from the crosses: ‘Sanilac’ × ‘Contender’, ‘BBL 240’ × ‘Contender’, and ‘Sanilac’ × ‘BBL 240’ were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Segregation of the genes controlling phaseolin and G2/albumin polypeptides, and those controlling a further five groups of seed proteins (A, B, D, E, and F) were observed. No recombinant electrophoretic phenotypes were seen for phaseolin or G2/albumin polypeptides suggesting that the genes controlling each of these groups of polypeptides are closely linked and segregate like single Mendelian genes. The phaseolin genes and G2/albumin genes were not linked to each other. The group of genes controlling phaseolin polypeptides were linked to those controlling group B proteins, and those controlling G2/albumin polypeptides were linked to those controlling group F proteins.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris ; Lectins ; Albumin ; Globulin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Variation in the native conformation of bean lectins was examined using electrophoresis of non-denatured total protein extracts and purified albumin and globulin lectin. The observed variation was related to the genetic variation reported previously for lectin polypeptide composition as revealed by two-dimensional isoelectricfocusing-sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (IEF-SDS/PAGE). When eleven cultivars with different IEF-SDS/PAGE lectin polypeptide compositions were compared, eight had unique non-denatured lectin patterns and three had identical patterns. For some cultivars differences in non-denatured lectin patterns were observed between the purified albumin and globulin lectin preparations.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris ; Storage proteins ; Electrophoresis ; Genetic variation ; Banding types
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Charge and molecular weight heterogeneity of globulin-1 (G1) polypeptides of the bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., were revealed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Different bean cultivars were classified into three groups: ‘Tendergreen’, ‘Sanilac’, and ‘Contender’ on the basis of their protein subunit composition. Nine distinct major bands: α51,α49, α48.5,β48T, β48S, β47, γ45.5, γ45S, and γ45C, and two minor bands: γ46T and γ46S were found to account for the three profiles seen on one-dimensional SDS-PAGE. Two-dimensional analysis revealed these eleven protein bands to be composed of a minimum of fourteen distinct protein subunits. The ‘Tendergreen’ and ‘Sanilac’ types differ in their G1 polypeptide composition. The protein patterns of the ‘Contender’ types are intermediate, containing many protein subunits found in the patterns of the ‘Tendergreen’ and ‘Sanilac’ types suggesting a genetic and evolutionary relationship.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Triticum aestivum ; Glutenin ; Gliadin ; Electrophoresis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Subunits of wheat endosperm proteins have been fractionated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. To determine which subunits in the two-dimensional electrophoretic pattern belong to gliadin or glutenin the endosperm proteins have also been fractionated by a modified Osborne procedure and by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and Sepharose CL-4B prior to separation by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The control of production of five major grain protein subunits is shown to be determined by chromosomes 6A, 6B and 6D by comparing two-dimensional electrophoretic protein subunit patterns of aneuploid lines of the variety ‘Chinese Spring’. From these and previous studies it is concluded that some α, β and γ gliadins (molecular weights by SDS-PAGE 30,000 to 40,000) are specified by genes on the short arms of homoeologous Group 6 chromosomes, the ω gliadins (molecular weights by SDS-PAGE 50,000 to 70,000) are specified by genes on the short arms of homoeologous Group 1 chromosomes and the glutenin subunits (molecular weights by SDS-PAGE 〉 85,000) are specified by genes on the long arms of homoeologous Group 1 chromosomes. No major gliadins or glutenin subunits were absent when any of the chromosomes in homoeologous Groups 2, 3, 4, 5 or 7 were deleted. However two gliadins whose presumed structural genes are on chromosome 6D were absent in aneuploid stocks of ‘Chinese Spring’ carrying two additional doses of chromosome 2A. Two out of thirty-three intervarietal or interspecific chromosome substitution lines examined, involving homoeologous Group 2 chromosomes, lacked the same two gliadins. All the subunits in the other thirty-one chromosome substitution lines were indistinguishable from those in ‘Chinese Spring’. It is therefore concluded that the major variation affecting gliadin and glutenins in wheat is concentrated on the chromosomes of homoeologous Groups 1 and 6 but Group 2 chromosomes are candidates for further study. An endosperm protein controlled by chromosome 4D in ‘Chinese Spring’ is shown to be a high molecular weight globulin.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Wheat ; Endosperm ; Proteins ; Electro phoresis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The major endosperm proteins in a range of genotypes of hexaploid wheat have been fractionated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The genotypes included nine varieties and forty four intervarietal substitution lines in which chromosomes 1A, 1B, 1D, 6A, 6B or 6D from eight of the varieties have been introduced one at a time into a common genetic background. The appearance of different protein subunits was often correlated with a chromosome substitution. This showed that many of the genes for the high molecular weight protein subunits (molecular weight range 55,000 to 140,000 determined by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) are specified by chromosomes 1A, 1B and 1D while many of the lower molecular weight subunits (molecular weight range 30,000 to 45,000) are specified by chromosomes 6A, 6B and 6D. The different protein subunits correlated with chromosome substitution could not always be recognised in the varietal source of the substituted chromosome. The different subunits specified by homologous chromosomes in different wheat varieties may differ in isoelectric point and/or molecular weight.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Theoretical and applied genetics 62 (1982), S. 263-271 
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris ; Seed protein ; Lectins ; Electrophoresis ; Agglutination
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Single seeds of over 100 bean cultivars were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The cultivars could be classified into eight groups by virtue of their G2/albumin electrophoretic patterns: TG2, SG2, VG2, PrG2, BG2, MG2, PG2, and PiG2, The polypeptide compositions of these types were largely inter-related having particular polypeptides in common. It was possible to correlate the G2/albumin patterns with agglutinating activity of cow and rabbit blood cells as measured by the agglutination ratio (minimum concentration of extract required to agglutinate cow blood cells: minimum concentration of extract required to agglutinate rabbit blood cells). The active lectin polypeptides were identified by extracting lectins from agglutinated erythrocytes and by comparing the qualitative similarities and differences of the G2/albumin patterns and their agglutination activities. A reference catalogue of over 100 bean cultivars giving their phaseolin and G2/albumin electrophoretic patterns, and agglutination ratios is presented.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Streptozotocin induced diabetes ; transplantation ; fetal pancreas ; pregnancy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have investigated glucose homeostasis and insulin response to glucose in seven rats before, during and after pregnancy, who were previously successfully transplanted with a single fetal pancreas. Increased need for insulin during pregnancy provides an opportunity to test the reserve capacity of the transplanted organ. Plasma glucose in seven rats was normal before pregnancy (7.3±0.7 mmol/l), during pregnancy (6.6 ±1 mmol/l) and after parturition (6.7 ±0.3 mmol/l). Fasting plasma glucose was lower after parturition (5.1±1 mmol/l) than before pregnancy (6.1±0.7 mmol/l). The disappearance rate of injected glucose was the same before (2.3±0.2%/min) as after pregnancy (2.6±0.2%/min). Basal plasma insulin before pregnancy was elevated and there was no rise from glucose; after parturition the basal and pattern of response was normal. The total insulin content of the transplants (859±154 mU) was only 21% of that of normal rats; we conclude that this provides a reserve adequate for the needs of pregnancy.
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