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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Vestibular postural control ; Ischemic blocking ; Spindle afferents ; Tabes dorsalis ; Man
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary After minimizing proprioceptive input from the legs by ischemia without degradation of muscle force and excluding visual stabilization by eye closure, a characteristic anterior-posterior postural sway around 1 Hz was observed in three normal subjects. This is similar to the instability seen in two tabes dorsalis patients. From the spectral analysis of head and hip movements, displacements of the center of force and of ankle angle as well as from EMG recordings of the anterior tibial and gastrocnemius muscle it is concluded that the oscillations around 1 Hz are due to the long latency and high threshold of vestibularly induced leg muscle discharges (200–300 ms) arriving in the counterbalancing phase of the trunk, which causes an overshoot in body sway.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Human balancing ; Spinal stretch reflex ; Leg muscle EMG ; Proprioceptive posture control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary While subjects balanced on a seesaw consisting of a platform with a curved base, the antero-posterior sway of head and body as well as changes in the angle of the ankle joint were recorded and analysed for their frequency power spectrum. The EMG of leg muscles and the position of the resultant force exerted by the seesaw on a force-measuring platform were simultaneously registered and analysed. Balancing oscillations of 4–5 Hz were observed under this condition. They were accompanied by short, reciprocally organized bursts of EMG activity in the leg muscles. When stimulating the tibialis nerves to produce a displacement, the delay until the counterbalancing EMG activity started (about 40 ms) was in the time range of a fast-conducting segmental reflex. After partial ischaemic blocking of group I afferents from the leg muscles or fixation of the ankle joints, the predominant sway frequency was lacking, bursts of EMG activity became longer and stronger, and body balance was more unstable. Altering the height of the seesaw showed that a threshold change in the ankle angle was the determining factor in the production of spinal stretch reflex activity for fast regulation of balance.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental brain research 47 (1982), S. 172-176 
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Spinal EMG coordination ; EMG in balancing ; Leg muscle activity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary While subjects were standing and balancing on two separate seesaws, the EMG of the leg muscles and the positions of the two seesaws were recorded. The spontaneous balancing movements with predominant oscillations of 4–5 Hz, and the accompanying bursts of EMG activity in the leg muscles occurred quite symmetrically on the two sides. After a displacement, induced either by stimulating the tibial nerves, or by a brisk anterior tilt of one seesaw, the EMG responses of the tibialis anterior muscles started with the same latency (about 50 ms) on both sides, and with similar amplitudes, even when only one side was displaced. It is concluded that this symmetrical leg muscle activation is mediated by a spinal coordinating mechanism the function of which depends on the actual motor task.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Vascular lesions ; Vasoconstriction ; Critical wall tension ; Accelerated hypertension
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pathogenesis of acute vascular lesions has been studied in two types of accelerated vascular disease. Firstly, vascular lesions were induced by a short-term (2 h) infusion of angiotensin II. Low doses of angiotensin II caused only a slight increase in blood pressure and non-destructive lesions. High doses caused a significant elevation of blood pressure and destructive vascular lesions. Secondly, in renovascular hypertension, renal vascular disease was induced by the removal of the stenosing clip from the renal artery. Incidence and severity of destructive vascular lesions were correlated with the calculated gradient between the pressure before and beyond the stenosis. Anaesthesia had a protective effect on the development of destructive vascular lesions in both models. Obviously, this effect is not related to a reduction of the systemic pressure, but rather to the suppression of abnormal vascular tone, characterized by focal constriction alternating with overdilation. Vasomotor changes, which cause a local overdilation, may be responsible for destructive vascular lesions even at normal to subnormal blood-pressure values. Destructive vascular lesions occur as a result of the exceeding of a critical wall tension. The necrosis of medial smooth-muscle cells in non-destructive lesions may be explained by an excessive contraction, which “surpasses” the metabolic capacity of the cells.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0942-0940
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The combination of chemotherapy and irradiation for the treatment of malignant intracerebral tumours is increasing, and survival times longer than those after monotherapy are reported. The suitability of simultaneous radio-chemotherapy using BCNU-Bleomycin, a regimen in which has been followed 38 patients of this hospital (up to 31 December 1981) is critically discussed. Statistics of 30 patients with treatment ended by 31 December 1980 and case histories of two patients with fatal complications, aspergillosis in the one and necrotizing colitis in the other, are presented. The value of the various agents used for chemotherapy is discussed with respect to the survival rates and observed side effects in all the patients. The use of Bleomycin is questioned.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Applied physics 24 (1981), S. 239-243 
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 75.30 C ; 75.30 K ; 76.50
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The average spontaneous magnetizationM s at room temperature of electrodeposited amorphous Co−P samples was measured as a function of the average phosphorus contentc P by a magnetometer method. As the relation is linear it is also valid for the dependence of the localM s on the localc P .Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) yielded the averageM s of surface layers of about 1 μm thickness (skin depth). Thus composition profiles could be obtained by stepwise thinning the samples and measuring FMR after each step. In some cases the gradient of phosphorus concentration reached 40 at. %/mm whereas the corresponding in-plane quantity is smaller by nearly 3 orders of magnitude. The composition distribution was not changed by long time annealing below crystallisation temperature.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. In Sprague-Dawley rats, two-kidney, one-clip renal hypertension was induced, and the drinking behaviour as well as total fluid and sodium intake were studied before and for 16 days after the operation.2. When water alone was offered as drinking fluid, the blood pressure reached values that were by about 20 mmHg higher than those in the rats which had free choice of drinking water or 2% saline.3. In those rats which had water and 2% saline to drink, the total sodium and fluid intake rose transiently for three days, as compared with that of the sham-operated controls, and increased steeply starting from the 7th and 10th day, respectively. When a tighter stenosis of the renal artery was induced, the pressure rose more rapidly, and the total fluid and sodium intake increased continuously after the operation until the end of the experiment.4. A positive correlation was demonstrable between the height of blood pressure and the total daily intake of fluid and sodium, respectively.5. The relation between the total daily fluid and the total daily sodium intake followed a straight regression line.6. The hypertensive rats which had a high total sodium intake responded to the withdrawal of the 2% saline solution, within 2 days, with increased water intake, decreased food intake, and loss of body weight, whereas the blood pressure remained high.7. In the two-kidney, one-clip hypertension, no ‘critical level of blood pressure’ can be defined, beyond which the contralateral kidney starts to lose sodium.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were ‘chemically sympathectomized’ immediately after birth with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 100 mg/kg s.c. daily) for the first 10 days of life.2. Body weight gain was diminished in both groups as compared with sham-treated controls. Blood pressure was reduced in ‘sympathectomized’ SHRSP, and also WKY rats had a slightly lower blood pressure than control rats.3. Plasma concentration of angotensin II and renin content of the kidney were not influenced by 6-OHDA.4. ‘Sympathectomized’ SHRSP retained similar amounts of sodium than sham-treated SHRSP when sodium retention is expressed per body weight gained. Plasma and blood volumes were increased in both SHRSP and WKY rats, whereas packed cell volume was significantly decreased.5. These results demonstrate the significance of an intact sympathetic nervous system for the development of hypertension in SHRSP. The expanded plasma and blood volume in ‘sympathectomized’ rats indicate an important role of the sympathetic nervous system and/or the arterial blood pressure for the regulation of intravascular volume.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Summary Two mathematical models are considered which generate multimodal interval distributions. They may be applied for the description of interval distributions of unitary discharges of single neurons.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0711
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Drei Frauen unter der Geburt wird eine titrierte Initialdosis (TID) von131J-Streptokinase innerhalb 1 min intravenös inkorperiert. Die Distribution erreicht ihr Maximum nach 3 min. Es wird danach eine Anreicherung der Substanz über der Leber mit einem Gipfel der Aktivität um 20 min nach Injektion gemessen. Zur gleichen Zeit ist im Blut höchste Fibrinolyseaktivität nachweisbar. Ein Placentatransfer von131J-Streptokinase wird von weniger als 1/1000 der mütterlichen Blutaktivität im Nabelschnurblut gemessen. Später im fetalen Blut auftretende Reaktionen werden durch passiven Übertritt von split products veranlaßt. Eine Thrombolysebehandlung mit Streptokinase während der Schwangerschaft ist demnach möglich. Erfahrungen an 12 selbstbehandelten Graviden liegen bisher vor.
    Notes: Summary A titrated initial dose (TID) of131J-streptokinase is injected intravenously into three women under labour within 1 minute. The distribution reaches its maximum after 3 minutes. The substance accumulates in the liver with a peak 20 minutes following injection. At the same time highest activity of fibrinolysis can be shown in blood. A placental transfer of131J-streptokinase less than 1/1000 of the activity in maternal blood can be demonstrated by analysis of cord blood. Reactions in fetal blood occuring after a larger time interval are caused by passive diffusion of split products. Hence a thrombolytic treatment with streptokinase is possible during pregnancy. There is some experience with 12 pregnant women of our clinic.
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