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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Muscle spindles ; Skeletofusimotor efferents ; \ Innervation ; Glycogen depletion ; Primate motor control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A total of ten a motor axons which innervated the peroneus brevis muscle were isolated in two cynomolgus monkeys. In each experiment, the isolated α axons were stimulated collectively to deplete glycogen from their muscle units. The muscle was then frozen quickly, cut serially, and stained for glycogen. Of the 52 muscle spindles that were examined, zones of glycogen depletion were found in the intrafusal fibres of 32 spindles. The glycogen-depleted motor units included both fast-twitch and slow-twitch types. Depleted zones were observed in all three types of intrafusal muscle fibres. It was concluded that skeletofusimotor (β) efferents were among the stimulated motor axons. This finding constitutes the first anatomical evidence for the existence of β innervation in the primate.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Chromosome 21 ; Tetrasomy ; Translocation ; Mosaicism ; Malformations ; Isochromosome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A 5-year-old boy with severe mental handicap, dysmorphic stigmata and a tetrasomy 21 in fibroblasts is reported. Blood lymphocytes of the patient have a normal karyotype. The origin of this tetrasomy 21 mosaicism is discussed.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Eleven Xp-deletion patients with various phenotypes ranging from normal to the Turner syndrome are reported. To explain the phenotypy-karyotype correlation the hypothesis is brought forward that (an) autosomal gene(s) may play a role in the pathogenesis of the Turner syndrome.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Cytogenetic studies have been performed in 1068 couples with antecedent fetal wastage, i.e., at least two spontaneous first trimester abortions or one spontaneous first trimester abortion and one late fetal death, particularly with multiple congenital malformations. Three major types: 33 reciprocal translocations (3.09%), 20 Robertsonian translocations (1.87%) and six other chromosomal abnormalities (0.56%) were found, bringing the total number of chromosomal abnormalities to 59 (5.5%) in 1068 couples under investigation. In contrast to couples with reciprocal translocations, a high excess of female over male carriers was found in the group of Robertsonian translocations. In the evaluation of chromosomal polymorphisms, only variants with particularly large paracentromeric constitutive heterochromatin blocks were taken into account, and their low frequency in the present study is therefore not comparable with that in a general population. The impact of further extensive familial investigation on genetic counseling and the follow-up of prenatal diagnosis are discussed.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Chromosome analysis with conventional staining, G-banding, and R-banding with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation were performed on the lymphocytes of ten females, who were heterozygous for the fragile X-chromosome. Mental development of these females varied greatly: moderate to severe mental retardation was found in one and moderate mental retardation in four females. Normal to borderline intelligence was found in three and normal intelligence was noted in two further females. The discrepancy in percentage of active fragile X-chromosomes in the five females with moderate mental retardation was found to be 60–100% (mean value: 80%). The three women with normal to borderline intelligence showed a corresponding discrepancy from 57 to 86% (mean value: 77%) of active fragile X-chromosomes. Finally, two female heterozygotes for fragile X with normal intelligence showed 70 and 76% (mean value 73%) of active fragile X-chromosomes. The phenotypic features also did not seem to correspond with the X-chromosome inactivation pattern. Based on the data obtained, we suggest that there is no evident correlation between the frequency of the active fragile X chromosomes and the mental status of these females.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Motor unit types ; Twitch and tetanic tensions ; Potentiation ; Peroneus tertius muscle ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Motor units of the cat peroneus tertius muscle were systematically analyzed using the criteria established by Burke et al. (1973). On the basis of their speed of contraction and resistance to fatigue, 121 (97%) of 125 motor units examined in ten adult cats could be classified as belonging to one of four types: fast-fatiguable (FF), fast-resistant (FR), fast-intermediate (FI), and slow-resistant (S). Peroneus tertius was found to contain 30% FF motor units, 9% FI units, 39% FR units, and 22% S units. Contraction times of fast motor units (FF, FR, and FI) ranged from 15 to 27 ms and those of S units from 26 to 42 ms. The mean tetanic tensions were 37 g for FF units, 29 g for FI units, 7.5 g for FR units, and 1.1 g for S units. Fast motor units displayed considerable post-tetanic potentiation of twitch tension. Under similar conditions of stimulation, FF units appeared able to potentiate more and faster than FR units.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Muscle spindles ; γ-Efferents ; Fusmotor innervation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pattern of γ-efferent innervation of the muscle spindle was investigated in the peroneus tertius muscle of the cat. A number of spindle group Ia afferents were isolated and monitored during tetanic stimulation of isolated γ-axons. The sample was dominated by efferents producing a static fusimotor effect on the afferent. An individual static axon normally projected to less than five but at times as many as seven muscle spindles. Each spindle normally received innervation from three to five static γ-efferents but occasionally up to eight. The number of spindles innervated by a static γ-axon was directly related to the efferent axonal conduction velocity. For each experiment, a probability distribution of the number of fusimotor effects was constructed from all available connections between the muscle spindles and static γ-efferents considered in matrices of four afferents and four efferents. This distribution was then compared to a random binomial distribution. In each of the ten experiments, statistically significant differences (p〈0.01) were noted between the experimental and random distributions. In order to interpret such deviations from the random distributions, similar analyses were performed on various combinations of afferents and efferents in simulated sets displaying grouping of effects. It was concluded that the observed differences between experimental and random distributions may be produced by a grouping of fusimotor innervation limited to a small set of spindles.
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  • 9
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    Springer
    Archives of dermatological research 269 (1980), S. 325-327 
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 06.30 F ; 32 ; 35 ; 52-55
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Observation with an improved signal-to-noise ratio of the hyperfine resonance pattern of199Hg+ stored in a radiofrequency trap is reported. A frequency control loop which locks the frequency of a 5MHz quartz crystal oscillator to the hyperfine transition of stored mercury ions, close to 40.5 GHz, is described. In this system, pulses delivered by the photomultiplier are processed digitally. Optimal conditions for the interrogation of the hyperfine transition are specified. A fractional frequency stability σy(τ)=3.6×10−11τ−1/2 for 10s〈τ〈3500s has been obtained. This frequency stability is comparble to that of commercially available cesium beam frequency standards. Prospect for improvement by a factor of at least 10 are discussed.
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