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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Specimens of four non-precious dental casting alloys intended for use in the ceramicmetal technique were implanted subcutaneously in the neck region of mice. The animals were killed after 5 months. Organs and tissues were tested as regards the concentration of nickel by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The study showed that due to electrochemical corrosion nickel was released from implants and accumulated in some tissues and organs.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Metallic restorations are corroded in the oral environment. Corrosion products penetrate into the tissues and are distributed thssroughout the body seeking certain organs and tissues as targets.The distribution patterns of nickel in albino mice were studied autoradiographically at various periods after an intravenous injection of 63Ni in order to locate the target organs and tissues of nickel.Wth short survival periods the highest uptake of 63Ni was found in the blood, kidney, urinary bladder, lung, eye and hair follicles. With long survival periods, 3 weeks, the distribution pattern was dominated by high uptake in the lung tissues, central nervous system, kidneys, hard tissues and skin.The distribution pattern in brown mice was similar to that in albino mice. However, the concentration in the eye and the skin was more pronounced. The importance of release of nickel from nickel containing dental alloys in nickel allergic patients is discussed.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: drug utilisation ; prescribing habits ; hypnotics ; sedatives ; minor tranquillisers ; defined daily doses ; therapeutic audit
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The utilisation of hypnotics, sedatives, and minor tranquillisers (HSmT) was studied by means of drug-delivery and hospital occupancy statistics for 1975–1977 in a Swedish university hospital. A total of 0.53 so-called defined daily doses (DDD)/bed-day were delivered in 1975, implying that every second patient might have regularly been prescribed HSmT. The benzodiazepines were predominant with 71% of the deliveries. Five major drugs accounted for 88%. The drug pattern and the range of DDD/bed-day (0.09–1.18) differed considerably between the departments. Drugs not recommended by the hospital's Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee accounted only for 3% of deliveries. In a drug surveillance study performed in two medical wards, HSmT were prescribed for 43% of 274 patients. Drug delivery and prescription data were in broad agreement. Drug information activities in the hospital had a clearly discernable influence on the delivered DDD/bed-day. This measure is an inexpensive indicator of drug utilisation in a hospital and a suitable basis for therapeutic audit.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: drug problems ; patient compliance ; adverse drug reactions ; interview ; pharmacokinetics ; inadequate therapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The association between hospital admission and drug-related problems was evaluated in 285 consecutive admissions to two medical wards in a Swedish university hospital. Standardised definitions and criteria for causality were used. A drug-related problem was judged to have been the main reason for admission of 36 patients, and a strongly contributory reason for 9. These 45 patients comprised 16% of all patients, and 19% of those receiving medication prior to admission. For 19 patients the problem was considered to be failure to achieve the desired therapeutic effect. 11 of these 19 took less medication than prescribed, and an inadequate dose had been presented for the other 8 patients. In 26 patients there was an excessive or otherwise adverse effect. In 10 it was an intentional or accidental poisoning, and 16 had an adverse drug reaction. Non-compliance with the prescribed regimen caused almost half of the drug-related admissions: 11 took too little and 10 took too much of the prescribed drugs. The majority of the other problems could probably have been prevented by better application of pharmacokinetic principles to the prescribing.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Anabaena ; Cyanobacteria ; Ammonium release ; Photorespiration ; Glycollate pathway
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A release of ammonium by non-nitrogen-fixing Anabaena cylindrica (grown on NH4Cl) in the presence of MSX (methionine sulfoximine) and absence of any external nitrogen source was found. In the light the release was maximal at 0.2 mM MSX, a concentration which did not affect net CO2 fixation nor the glycollate excretion, but inhibited the glutamine synthetase activity and the reassimilation of ammonium. It is suggested that the major source of the ammonium released is the photorespiratory conversion of glycine to serine as (1) the release was stimulated by increase in light intensity, (2) high CO2 (3%) lowered the release, if not given as a longer pretreatment (as CO2 or HCO 3 - ) when a stimulation was observed, (3) glyoxylate and glutamate stimulated the release, the latter compound particularly under nitrogen-deficient conditions and (4) isonicotinic acid hydrazide caused a reduced release of ammonium. Furthermore, a substantial part of the ammonium released by N2-fixing A. cylindrica in presence of MSX may thus originate from the glycollate pathway. The data show that in the light the glycine to serine conversion is active in cyanobacteria with a concomitant production of ammonium which is assimilated by glutamine synthetase.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0738
    Keywords: Alkylation ; Irreversible binding ; Trichloroethylene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The covalent binding of14C-1,1,2-trichloroethylene (14C-TRI) metabolites to calf thymus DNA in vitro and to RNA and DNA of mouse brain, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, and testis after repeated i.p. injections has been studied. Hydrolysates of DNA reacted with14C-TRI in vitro and hydrolysates of RNA and DNA from selected organs were separated on Aminex A6 for quantitation of alkylation products. The presence of 3,N4-etheno(deoxy)cytidine, 1,N6-etheno(deoxy)adenosine and 1,N6-ethenoadenine was investigated. No radioactivity could be registered in DNA incubated with14C-TRI in the absence of liver microsomes. Covalent binding of14C-TRI to DNA took place in the presence of liver microsomes from control mice. The binding was enhanced by 50% if liver microsomes from phenobarbital pretreated mice were used. The radioactivity in DNA reacted with14C-TRI and microsomes from control mice was eluted in early fractions and together with thymidine. The same two peaks appeared on chromatography of DNA incubated with14C-TRI and liver microsomes from phenobarbital pretreated mice. In addition, radioactivity was eluted together with 1,N6-ethenoadenine. Radioactivity was registered in RNA and DNA from all of the studied organs after i.p. injections of14C-TRI. The radioactivity in RNA increased in the order brain 〈 testis 〈 pancreas 〈 kidney 〈 liver 〈 lung 〈 spleen. The radioactivity in DNA increased in the order brain 〈 kidney 〈 testis 〈 lung 〈 pancreas 〈 liver 〈 spleen. Aminex A6 chromatography revealed that the entire radioactivity in RNA from liver and kidney and in DNA from kidney, testis, lung, pancreas, and spleen was due to metabolic incorporation, particularly into guanine and adenine. This finding indicates that the C-C bond in TRI is split, with the formation of C1-fragments, during biotransformation in vivo. In liver DNA, the metabolic incorporation of radioactivity was insignificant. Instead, the dominant part of the radioactivity in liver DNA was eluted in early fractions. The elution profile of radioactivity in liver DNA gave no direct evidence of the formation of TRI-DNA adducts in vivo. No etheno-derivatives were identified as alkylation products of TRI in vivo, which is consistent with current theories of the metabolic fate of TRI.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: chlorpropamide ; diabetes ; drug utilisation ; patient compliance ; diet ; plasma concentration ; maturity onset diabetes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Serum chlorpropamide concentrations (s-CPA) were determined and related to clinical findings in 83 outpatients with maturity onset diabetes. The daily doses of CPA (mg/kg) varied six-fold, but s-CPA ranged 18-fold between the patients. There was a significant correlation between dose and s-CPA (r=0.61), which rose to 0.75 in the 30 patients who had prescribed no other drugs. Patients given other drugs concomitantly were over-represented amongst subjects with extreme values of apparent plasma clearance of CPA. There was no correlation either between serum creatinine or age and s-CPA. Of the 83 patients 40 (48%) had acceptable blood and urinary glucose values according to our criteria; but as 17 were overweight, only 23 patients (28%) had acceptable clinical control. Of the remaining 60 patients, too low a dose was being given to only 12, and dietary failure was the most probable explanation in the others. Thirteen patients (16%) probably did not need CPA. It is likely that this is a partial explanation for the high utilisation of oral antidiabetic drugs in Sweden. There was no general correlation between dose or s-CPA and blood glucose values, but analysis of s-CPA may still be of value in explaining unexpected changes in clinical control.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: zimeldine ; amitriptyline ; mianserin ; alcohol interaction ; coordination tests ; critical flicker fusion ; body sway ; psychomotor skills ; tolerance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary 13 healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind, four-period, cross-over study. In each period, the trial drugs (placebo, zimeldine, amitriptyline and mianserin) were given in fixed dosages for 8 days; amitriptyline 10–50 mg twice daily, mianserin 10–30 mg twice daily and zimeldine 200 mg once daily. Ethanol 1 g/kg bodyweight was drunk 2 hours after drug intake on Days 1 and 8 of each period, the latter being separated by a 2 week wash-out period. Ratings of subjective feelings and side effects, and performance tests were done on Days 1 and 8 of each period before, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 h after drug intake, i.e. 2 of the tests were performed under the influence of ethanol. Mianserin decreased critical flicker frequency, slowed reactions under discriminative stimulation and tended to cause nystagmus, but only on Day 1 (after the first 10 mg dose). Amitriptyline impaired coordination on Days 1 (after the initial 10 mg dose) and 8, and lowered the flicker threshold on Day 8 at “steady state” (after the 50 mg morning dose). Both these antidepressants were felt to be sedative, especially in the initial phase of the treatment, and they interacted additively with ethanol. No impairment of psychomotor skills was associated with zimeldine, only a subjective sedative effect of the 200 mg dose was seen on Day 1. Zimeldine did not enhance the effects of ethanol; it even showed some antagonism of ethanol-induced body sway in the standing steadiness test. In contrast to amitriptyline and mianserin, zimeldine was regarded as not harming psychomotor skills, and as not having any observable interaction with ethanol.
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