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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0916
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We consider a nonlinear, elliptic, free-boundary problem involving an initially unknown setA that represents, for example, the cross-section of a steady vortex ring or of a confined plasma in equilibrium. The solutions are characterized by a variational principle which allows us to describe their behaviour under a limiting process such that the diameter ofA tends to zero, while the solutions degenerate to the solution of a related linear problem. This limiting solution is the sum of the Green function of the linear operator and of a smooth function satisfying the boundary conditions. Mathematically speaking, this limiting process, that we call “nonlinear desingularization”, is a novel kind of bifurcation phenomenon since the nonlinear effect here involves smoothing the singularity of the associated linear problem.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Dexamethasone suppression test ; Psychiatric disorders ; Intervening variables ; Dexamethason-Suppressions-Test ; Psychiatrische Erkrankungen ; intervenierende Variable
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung In den letzten Jahren wurde in zahlreichen Publikationen der Dexamethason-Suppressions-Test (DST) als geeignetes Instrument zur Diagnostik endogener Depressionen dargestellt. Eigene Untersuchungen an 333 psychiatrischen Patienten und 121 gesunden Kontrollpersonen sprechen gegen eine differentialdiagnostische Wertigkeit des DST. Diese Aussage wird durch neuere Befunde anderer Arbeitsgruppen gestützt. Diagnoseunabhängige Variable wie Schweregrad der Erkrankung, Gewichtsverlust, Schlafstörungen, situativer Stress, Medikamenten- und Alkohol-Entzug sowie die Pharmakokinetik von Dexamethason scheinen entscheidend das Testergebnis zu beeinflussen.
    Notes: Summary In the past few years there have been numerous publications, which have stressed the value of the Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST) as a diagnostic marker of endonous depression. Our own studies in 333 psychiatric inpatients and 121 healthy subjects did not reveal a differential diagnostic use for the DST. This result is in good agreement with recent results published in the literature. Our own data demonstrate, however, that intervening variables, such as severity of illness, weight loss, sleep disturbances, situational stress, drug and alcohol withdrawal and the pharmacokinetics of dexamethasone, have an important influence on the DST results, regardless of the diagnostic classification.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Diabetes education ; Type 1 diabetes ; severe hypoglycaemia ; diabetes care
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In two hospitals an identical diabetes teaching and treatment programme (in-patient, Monday to Friday, group teaching) was set up. Seventy-eight consecutive, conventionally treated Type 1 diabetic patients (duration of diabetes 10±6 years), referred during a certain period, were reinvestigated after 1 year, and again (for assessment of metabolic control only) 22 months after the teaching and treatment programme. Initially, mean glycosylated haemoglobin was 2.6%, after one year 1.0%, and after 22 months 1.5% above the upper limit of the normal range (p〈0.001). Hospital admissions were reduced from a mean of 10 to a median of 1 day per patient per year (p〈0.001). The long-term quality of diabetes care achieved by the diabetes teaching and treatment programme was unrelated to intelligence quotient, diabetes duration, or diabetes-related knowledge. Patients with normal levels of glycosylated haemoglobin on follow-up (33% of all patients) had particularly good compliance rates, and significantly lower initial values of glycosylated haemoglobin than patients with glycosylated haemoglobin levels ⩾10%. The data indicate that the diabetes teaching and treatment programme resulted in a substantial long-term improvement of metabolic control and a striking reduction of hospital admissions. The study substantiates the feasibility of applying this teaching and treatment programme on a large scale to other hospitals, so as to improve the quality of diabetes care and decrease health care costs.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Hyperinsulinaemia ; insulin resistance ; insulin degradation ; haemochromatosis ; cirrhosis ; insulin ; glucagon ; C-peptide ; gastric inhibitory polypeptide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary This study investigated early alterations of glucose metabolism in idiopathic haemochromatosis. Circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIF) were measured after a 100-g oral glucose load in 10 men with idiopathic haemochromatosis in the non-cirrhotic stage of the disease. All had normal glucose tolerance and normal body weight. Ten matched healthy subjects were studied as controls. Insulin concentrations increased to significantly higher levels in patients with idiopathic haemochromatosis than in the control subjects from 30 to 180min after the glucose load (p〈0.01), while fasting insulin concentrations were not significantly different (p〉 0.05). Concentrations of glucose, glucagon, C-peptide, and GIF were not significantly different at any time (p〉 0.05). Thus, patients with idiopathic haemochromatosis show hyperinsulinaemia and hence insulin resistance without impaired glucose tolerance in the non-cirrhotic stage. Since pancreatic insulin secretion (C-peptide), glucagon secretion, and the entero-insulinar axis (GIP) are not impaired in these non-cirrhotic patients with idiopathic haemochromatosis, iron accumulation in the hepatocytes may be responsible for the impaired insulin effect and may cause impaired hepatic insulin extraction.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Diabetologia 25 (1983), S. 457-459 
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Diphtheritic polyneuropathy ; Muscle biopsy ; Intramuscular nerves ; Electron microscopy ; Histochemistry ; Diphtherie-Polyneuropathie ; Muskelbiopsie ; intramuskuläre Nerven ; Elektronenmikroskopie ; Histochemie
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Biopsien aus Extremitätenmuskeln von vier Kranken mit schwerer tetraplegischer Form der Diphtherie-Polyneuropathie konnten nahe dem Höhepunkt der Erkrankung gewonnen und mit modernen Methoden einschließlich Histochemie, Elektronenmikroskopie und morphometrischer Verfahren untersucht werden. Vergleichbare Studien wurden bisher nicht veröffentlicht. Die Muskulatur bot vorwiegend neurogene Veränderungen mit disseminierten angulierten Fasern, eine besonders die Typ-2B-Fasern betreffende, mehr generaliierte Atrophie sowie Targetoidherde oder „Cores” in Typ-1-Fasern. Darüber hinaus fanden sich eindeutige myogene Veränderungen mit unterschiedlichen Degenerationsphänomenen bis zur totalen Nekrose, offenbar — wie am Herzmuskel —toxischer Herkunft. Das neurogen-myogene Mischbild entsprach den elektromyographischen Befunden. Die intramuskulären Gefäße waren unauffällig bis auf vereinzelte perivaskuläre, vorwiegend mononukleäre Zellinfiltrate mit reichlich zerebriformen lymphoiden Zellen, wahrscheinlich T-Lymphozyten. An 11 intramuskulären Nerven und zwei motorischen Endplatten waren eindeutig auf die Diphtherie zu beziehende Veränderungen nicht aufzudecken. Dies kann als Hinweis auf eine vorwiegend proximale Entmarkung bei der Diphtherie-Polyneuropathie des Menschen gedeutet werden, die damit eher der experimentellen Form des Kaninchens als der des Meerschweinchens entspricht.
    Notes: Summary Mucle biopsies from the lower extremities of four patients with severe tetraplegic form of diphtheritic polyneuropathy were examined by modern techniques including histochemistry, electron microscopy and morphometric procedures. Until now comparable studies have not been published. The biopsies were removed during the acute stage of the polyneuropathy. We found scattered small angulated muscle fibers beside a more generalized slight atrophy predominantly of type 2B fibers and targetoid-phenomenons or cores in type 1 fibers. Beside this neurogenic pattern there also were, corresponding with the results of electromyography, primary myogenic alterations with different degenerative phenomenons, suspicious of toxic origin as in cardiac muscle. The intramuscular vessels showed no abnormalities except some perivascular predominantly mononuclear cellular reactions with a remarkable number of cerebriform lymphoid cells, probably T-lymphocytes. No specific pathological alterations could be detected in 11 intramuscular nerves and two motor endplates. This may reflect the more proximal demyelination of human peripheral neurons by the diphtheria toxin as found in experimental diphtheria of the rabbit in contrast to the more distal type of the guinea pig.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus ; Ca2+ ; glucagon release ; calcitonin release ; insulin release
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effects of Ca2+ and calcitonin infusions on circulating glucagon, glucose, C-peptide, Ca2+, and calcitonin were investigated in hyperglucagonaemic insulin-dependent diabetics. In 14 insulin-deprived diabetics and 12 healthy volunteers 2 h infusions of saline (0.154 mol/l), Ca2+ (0.375 mmol/kg body weight), and calcitonin (4.5 IU/kg body weight) were performed. There were no significant changes during saline infusion. In the diabetics, Ca2+ infusions induced a rise of plasma Ca2+ up to 3.2±0.1 mmol/l and a fall of circulating glucagon (-26.4±5.7%; p〈0.001) and glucose (-23.3 ±3.6%; p〈0.05). Plasma calcitonin rose to twice basal values (p〈0.025). During calcitonin infusions plasma Ca2+ decreased slightly to 2.1±0.2 mmol/l; a fall was found in both glucose (— 24.4±4.0%; p〈0.05) and circulating glucagon (-22.5±4.3%; p〈0.001). Two groups of 6 healthy volunteers were subjected to saline and Ca2+, or to Ca2+ and calcitonin infusions. Both Ca2+ and calcitonin infusions induced a fall of serum insulin (— 30.1±6.6%; p〈 0.05). Calcitonin depressed circulating glucagon by-18.6±4.4% (p〈0.025), whereas during Ca2+ infusions glucagon decreased only by -6.5±1.9% (p〉0.1). We conclude from our results that an increase of circulating calcitonin induced by Ca2+ infusions or by exogenous calcitonin administration appears to depress elevated circulating glucagon and glucose in insulin-dependent diabetics.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Physical training ; obesity ; diabetes ; hypertriglyceridaemia ; glucose intolerance ; Zucker rat ; insulin resistance ; perfused hindquarter
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of treadmill training on intravenous glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity was investigated in Zucker rats (fafa). In 25-week-old fafa animals with the typical metabolic syndrome of massive obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridaemia and insulin resistance, treadmill exercise of only very mild intensity was carried out for 6 weeks. The training programme induced a marked reduction in basal and post-glucose challenge plasma insulin levels and a slight but significant improvement of intravenous glucose tolerance. No alteration in insulin sensitivity of the isolated perfused hindquarter was demonstrable. In another study a 9-week training programme was started in 7-week-old fafa rats before the development of their metabolic syndrome. In the sedentary control animals glucose intolerance and insulin resistance developed during the study period; in the training group, both the deterioration of glucose tolerance and the decrease of insulin sensitivity were prevented. This study demonstrates in fafa rats that (a) in young animals physical training may prevent a genetically predisposed deterioration of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and (b) in adult animals mild physical training may improve intravenous glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-9120
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Autochthonous (primary) rat leukemia ; 7,12 Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene ; Chemotherapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A total of 111 autochthonous (primary) acute rat leukemias of the diffuse-hepatic type which had been induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene were treated with mono- and combination chemotherapy. The survival time of treated rats increased significantly compared to untreated controls. A combination of vincristine (VCR), adriamycin (ADR), and cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) was superior to a combination of VCR and ADR as well as to a monotherapy with Cyclophosphamide, BCNU, VCR, ADR, and Ara-C.
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