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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: propranolol ; sympathetic nerve activity ; subcutaneous blood flow ; muscle blood flow ; autoregulation ; veno-arteriolar reflex
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The influence of propranolol on blood flow in peripheral tissues was studied in 10 normotensive subjects. Adequacy of beta-blockade was ascertained by an ergometric test. Perfusion of the subcutaneous tissue and skeletal muscle was measured by the local133Xe-washout technique. The arteriolar dilatation underlying the autoregulatory response to a decrease in arterial perfusion pressurehead was not affected by beta-blockade. Propranolol did not change the magnitude of arteriolar constriction elicited by the local sympathetic veno-arteriolar reflex. Thus, the locally induced increase in the discharge rate along the peripheral sympathetic adrenergic fibres did not lead to measurable change in beta-receptor activity. The present results indicate that local bloodflow regulatory mechanisms are not affected by propranolol. They also indicate that the direct peripheral effects of propranolol are of no clinical importance in normotensive subjects in the supine position, when the general activity in the sympathetic nervous system is low.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Linkage ; HLA ; MODY ; genetics of diabetes ; heterogeneity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Studies with 20 different genetic marker systems were performed in a large kindred including 18 members affected with maturity onset type of diabetes of young people. Linkage closer than 0.1⩽θ could be excluded for ABO and Gm, and linkage closer than 0.05⩽θ for HLA GLO, and haptoglobin. No significant positive lod scores were found.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Chronic bacterial prostatitis ; Immunology ; Drug therapy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The results of the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis are disappointing. The current status of antimicrobial and immunological research is described. While both a local and systemic antibody response is demonstrated in acute bacterial prostatis, only a local antibody production is found in chronic bacterial prostatitis. This response as reflected in the expressed prostatic secretion is specific for the infecting organism and immunoglobulin A is the major antibody class involved. Drug penetration into the prostate has mainly been studied in dogs and the ideal drug appears to be a lipid-soluble base which will concentrate in the slightly acidic prostatic secretion because of ion-trapping. However, these results are not directly applicable to humans because of the slight alkalinity of human prostatic secretion, the localization of the chronic inflammatory process in the interstitium, and the evidence of an active secretory mechanism for trimethoprim. The clinical consequences of these findings are discussed in relation to several recent studies and the treatment with lipid-soluble bases with a low plasma protein binding over extended periods is recommended.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-0879
    Keywords: Candicidin ; Prostatism ; Urodynamics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The polyene macrolide candicidin was investigated in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Forty-one unselected patients with BPH and prostatism were admitted to a prospective, douple-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Patients treated with 270 mg candicidin daily for 6 months had a significant decrease in residual urine and a significant increase in maximum flow rate after correction for differences in corresponding bladder volume. Symptoms improved significantly in both the candicidin and the placebo group but no differences in improvement were found between the two groups. The mechanism of the drug's effect is unknown and positive results are much less pronounced than those obtained with surgery. Candicidin appears valuable in the treatment of BPH patients who are a poor surgical risk.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0851
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary CP-46-665-1 [4-aminomethyl-1(2,3-(di-n-decyloxy)-n-propyl)-4-phenylpiperidine dihydrochloride] is a novel, low-molecular-weight, synthetic compound with antimetastatic activity in rodent models. In the B-16 melanoma/C57Bl/6 mouse system, in which the hind limb bearing a primary foot tumor is amputated 21 days after tumor implantation, intravenous infusion of CP-46,665-1 after surgery at doses ranging from 0.15–2.5 mg/kg increases the fraction of metastasis-free animals at 50 days to as high as 56% (significantly different from the 19% seen in surgery-only controls, P〈0.001). In more preliminary experiments with a mammary adenocarcinoma (13762)/Fischer 344 rat system, there are suggestions that the combination of CP-46,665-1 administration and surgical removal of the primary tumor results in increased numbers of long-term survivors that are free of metastatic disease. The mechanisms underlying the antimetastatic activity of CP-46,665-1 are not fully evident, but certain lines of evidence suggest that the compound may act by affecting the reticuloendothelial system (RES). Peritoneal macrophages from animals dosed with CP-46,665-1 display elevated cytolytic activity against tumor target cells. Further, radiolabeled CP-46,665-1 and/or its metabolites preferentially accumulate in organs of the RES, and lymph nodes, spleens, and livers from animals dosed chronically with CP-46,665-1 contain scattered foci of histiocytic cells with foamy vacuoles containing material staining as complex lipid. CP-46,665-1 augments the vaccine potency of irradiated L-1210 leukemia cells, but does not induce interferon in rodents. CP-46,665-1 appeared to be well tolerated in rats and dogs when infused at doses of up to 25 mg/kg at 4-day intervals for 92 days. In addition to the changes in the lymphoreticular system described above, the principal findings in dogs that received high doses by injection were erythrocyte lysis accompanied by the expected serum chemistry and hematological correlates; microcytic anemia and injection site irritation were found in rats receiving high doses. Neither species displayed notable toxic reactions when chronically dosed at the 1 mg/kg level, a level well within the antimetastatic activity dose range. Cats and dogs with a variety of malignancies tolerated weekly doses of the agent as high as 5 mg/kg with minimal side-effects for periods up to 30 weeks. We believe that this combination of good chronic toleration and potent antimetastatic activity commend CP-46,665-1 well for more extensive study as an experimental drug for the treatment of cancer.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Blood lactate ; Dimensional influence on physiological variables ; Maximal oxygen uptake ; Oarsmen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Maximal aerobic power ( $$\dot V_{O_2 }$$ max) was determined during running, cycling, or rowing in 14 winners of international championship (European, world or Olympic) regattas in rowing, in 13 less qualified international competitive oarsmen, and in 10 lightweights. Ventilation ( $$\dot V_E$$ ), heart rate (HR), and blood lactate after maximal exercise were also measured. The winners had a weight of 93 kg, a $$\dot V_{O_2 }$$ max of 5.89 l×min−1, a $$\dot V_E$$ of 200 l×min−1, and a HR of 185 beats×min−1, as compared with 84kg, 5.58 l×min−1, 173 l×min−1, and 190 beats×min−1 in the less successful oarsmen, and 72kg, 5.13 l×min−1, and 164 l×min−1 in the lightweights. $$\dot V_{O_2 }$$ max and $$\dot V_E$$ were correlated to body weight, while HR and blood lactate were not, the latter showing an average value of 12.5 (SE 0.45) mmol×l−1. If expressed neutral to body dimensions all oarsmen had a $$\dot V_{O_2 }$$ max of about 293 ml×min−1×kg−2/3. It is suggested that the large $$\dot V_{O_2 }$$ max values found in oarsmen mainly reflect their large body dimensions.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Six marine macroalgae and two angiosperms were examined for their ability to use HCO 3 - and CO2 for photosynthesis. All species used HCO 3 - despite wide taxonomic differences. They also used HCO 3 - with high affinity: natural HCO 3 - concentrations (2.2 mM) were close to saturation, and the apparent half-saturation constants were low, i.e. K1/2 (HCO 3 - )=0.54 to 0.80 mM HCO 3 - . Expressed as a ratio, the affinity for CO2 relative to HCO 3 - under rate-limiting concentrations was about 2 for the marine species compared to much higher values, 5.4 to 101, among freshwater species examined previously. This difference was due to a higher affinity for HCO 3 - among marine species, whereas the affinity for CO2 was in the same range for marine and freshwater species, i.e. K1/2 (CO2)=0.08 to 0.30 mM. The high affinity for HCO 3 - of marine species is consistent with the high and constant availability of HCO 3 - and the low availability of CO2 in seawater. In freshwaters, availability of HCO 3 - and CO2 varies considerably, depending on habitat. The difference in HCO 3 - affinity may be due to different electrogenic ionpumps and thus mechanisms of HCO 3 - -use, operating in freshwater and marine species. Photosynthetic rates in natural seawater were close to maximum at atmospheric equilibrium (pH 8.2 to 8.4) and declined at high pH approaching zero between pH 9.5 and 10.5. This reduction may be due to the conversion of HCO 3 - to CO 3 - , followed by CaCO3 precipitation, and/or to a direct pH-effect. Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha sp. retained photosynthetic activity at the highest pH tested (10.5), consistent with the high pH recorded in mats of these species.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1435-4373
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Four cases of endocarditis due toKingella kingae are described in compromised patients. All had primary heart disease, and two had systemic lupus erythematosis and congenital heart defect respectively, in addition. Confirmation ofKingella kingae was made in one case at autopsy. The literature on 11 cases of endocarditis, 2 bacteremia, 4 osteomyelitis, 5 septic arthritis and 1 intervertebral disc infection, all caused byKingella kingae, is reviewed. Our findings confirm that the organism is of low pathogenicity. Children may be predisposed to infection withKingella kingae.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1520-5142
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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