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  • 1
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Replacement of the missing ossicular chain with an L-shaped homoio-incus represents a relatively simple and dependable method of reconstructing the sound conduction apparatus, by which the restoration of near-normal hearing can be achieved within the range of speech. The operation is indicated in cases of missing ossicular chain following radical mastoidectomy, destruction of the chain by cholesteatoma or otitis media chronica, and accompanying otosclerosis. In most cases the operation is performed in one sitting after corresponding pre-treatment even in cases of cholesteatoma, and in cases of existing radical cavity or where radical mastoidectomy is indicated, a bridge plasty can be performed at the same sitting. Differentiated study of the postoperative results with respect to indication, tube function and condition of the middle ear inflammation clearly shows that with optimal tube function and irritation-free healing of the transplant, the L-shaped homoio-incus presents a real alternative to other forms of middle ear reconstruction.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Intracellular receptor potentials ; Synaptic potentials ; Ultrastructure ; Bilateral afferent-efferent control ; Reptilian labyrinth
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Mechano-electric transduction and neuronal transmission were studied in sensory systems ascending from and descending to single receptor cells of the labyrinth organs in submammalian vertebrates. The animals were young crocodiles (Caiman crocodilus), geckos (Gekko gecko, Tarentola mauritanica), and turtles (Pseudemys scripta elegans, Chinemys reevesii). Intracellular receptor potentials from the apical region of the hair cell (or from the ciliary surface) were recorded in the ampullar, macular, and papillar sensory cells. These single-cell responses are, within limits, proportional to stimulus amplitude, frequency, or phase and are bidirectional in that they show depolarization by kinociliopetal stereociliar displacement and hyperpolarization by kinociliofugal displacement. Synaptic potentials (presynaptic from the basal region of the hair cell, postsynaptic from the contacting nerve endings) were recorded in the utricular, saccular, and lagenar neuroepithelia with electron-optic localization of the in situ fixed microelectrode tip. As local excitatory or inhibitory processes, respectively, they follow the stimulus and receptor potential with latency and with nonlinear distortion. Action potentials (spikes), as synchronized by the excitatory synaptic potentials, were recorded from single nerve fibers or bipolar cells, related to ampullar, macular, or papular receptor units. Unit responses and synaptic potentials were recorded from the first, second, and following centripetal and central neurons of the ascending systems, or from neurons of the descending systems in the brain stem or from centrifugal neurons. Such records were achieved during adequate mechanical or acoustical stimulation of the different receptor systems, with additional electrical stimulation, uni- or bilaterally. Thus, the influence of centripetal-centrifugal bilateral interaction on the receptor functions was measured, as inhibition or disinhibition, respectively. The input-output relations of these sequential stages of information transfer were plotted as histograms of different types, as characteristic curves, power spectra, or by correlation operations, with or without feedback, from the different systemic levels.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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