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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: temazepam ; ethanol ; sleep ; sleep latency ; sleep quality ; REM ; EEG
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effects of temazepam 20 mg and temazepam 20 mg plus whisky 100 ml on sleep and performance were investigated in 5 healthy volunteers in comparison with placebo. In the sleep laboratory, after temazepam there was a trend for reduction of sleep latency, stage wake and stage 1 sleep, and for an increase in REM sleep. The addition of alcohol to the regimen reduced the sleep latency still further, and diminished REM sleep. In subjective assessments, temazepam received the highest score for quality of sleep and the temazepam/alcohol combination that for ease of falling asleep. None of the observed changes reached statistical significance. No morning hangover, as measured by effects on wakefulness, performance or affective state, was seen after the combined treatment. Its effect on blood pressure was negligible. It is concluded that the combined administration of temazepam and alcohol in the doses used here does not result in excessive additive, but in moderate pharmacological effects.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Visual evoked potentials ; Scalp field EP distribution ; Monocular vs binocular stimuli ; Upper vs lower hemiretina
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Scalp potentials evoked by monocular and binocular 2/s checkerboard reversals with checks of 56 or 14 min were recorded from four midline electrodes between inion and 7.5 cm above inion vs a common anterior reference in 31 normals. The electrode location and latency of the evoked maximal occipitally positive potential difference between any 2 of the 5 electrodes, between 80 and 140 ms latency was determined in each run. Mean maximum locations over subjects for upper hemiretinal, binocular stimuli were more anterior than for monocular stimuli; for lower hemiretinal stimuli, inverted location differences were found. Binocular responses also had shorter latencies than monocular responses. Since area 18 is more anterior to 17 for upper, more posterior to 17 for lower hemiretinal projection to cortex, the results suggest that neurons which respond only if both eyes are simultaneously stimulated are more frequent in higher than lower order visual areas.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Evidence is presented here for a close linkage between Akv-2, an ecotropic provirus found uniquely on chromosome 16 of AKR/N mice, and the immunoglobulin λ 1 light chain locus, Igl-1. No recombinants between the Igl-1 locus and Akv-2 were found by Southern blot analysis of DNA obtained from progeny of the backcross of (AKR/N × SJL/J)F1 to SJL/J, indicating that these genes map within 5.9 cM of each other. A probe specific for the flanking sequence of Akv-2 was used to detect the provirus, while one specific for the IgI-1 constant region was used to determine which allele of the structural gene was expressed in the backcross mice. The constant region of Igl-1 differs between AKR/N and SJL/J with respect to a site for the restriction endonuclease KpnI. This backcross was also used to seek recombinants between the regulatory, Igl-1r, and structural, Igl-1, loci of the immunoglobulin light chain locus, since the existence of such recombinants would prove that these loci are distinct. Since only parental types were recovered in the offspring, the structural and regulatory loci are no more than 2.3 cM apart, and the implications of this finding are discussed.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Adrenaline and noradrenaline excretion ; Physical exercise ; Mental performance ; Adrenalin- ; Noradrenalinausscheidung ; körperliche ; konzentrative Belastung
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die Herzfrequenz, der Lactatspiegel, die basale und belastungsbezogene Ausscheidung an freiem Adrenalin and Noradrenalin im Harn wurden bei leichtgradiger (Ia, n=12), bei submaximaler Körperarbeit (Ib, n=24), ferner während leichtgradiger (Autobahnfahrt, IIa and IIb, n=25), höhergradiger (Autosimulatorfahrt, III, n=14) and submaximaler konzentrativer Belastung (Motorrennsport, n=48, IV) bestimmt. Die leichtgradige körperliche und konzentrative Belastung können anhand dieser Größen weder untereinander noch gegenüber der höhergradigen konzentrativen Belastung abgegrenzt werden. Die submaximale körperliche und konzentrative Belastung führen zu einer vergleichbaren Lactatazidose, Herzfrequenz und Noradrenalinausscheidung, die Adrenalinausscheidung ist jedoch bei submaximaler konzentrativer Belastung im Mittel dreifach höher als bei submaximaler Körperarbeit. Das Verhältnis Adrenalin-zu Noradrenalinausscheidung ändert sich folglich von ca. 1:4 (Körperarbeit und leichtgradige konzentrative Belastung) auf ca. 1:2 während submaximaler konzentrativer Belastung. Die Adrenalinausscheidung und das Verhältnis der Adrenalin-zur Noradrenalinausscheidung können zur Beurteilung und Abgrenzung der konzentrativen, hohergradigen Belastung von der Körperarbeit beitragen. Diese Größen können einfach and ohne Beeinträchtigung des Probanden ermittelt werden.
    Notes: Summary The basal and exercise-induced heart rates, lactate levels, and the adrenaline and noradrenaline excretions in the urine were measured during different types of physical exercise and mental performance: during moderate physical exercise (Ia, n = 12), submaximal physical exercise (Ib, n = 24), during moderate mental performance (motorway driving, II a and II b, n = 25), higher-grade mental performance (driving car-simulator, III, n= 14), and during submaximal mental performance (car racing, IV, n = 48). The moderate physical exercise and moderate mental performance could not be differentiated from one another, or from the higher-grade mental performance using the above-mentioned parameters. Both the submaximal physical exercise and mental performance resulted in a comparable lactate acidosis, heart rate increase, and noradrenaline excretion; the excretion of adrenaline is, however, 3 times higher after submaximal mental performance, than after submaximal physical exercise. The ratio of adrenaline to noradrenaline excretion changed from approximately 1:4 (during physical exercise and moderate mental performance) to approximately 1:2 during submaximal mental performance. The excretion of adrenaline and the ratio of adrenaline to noradrenaline excretion can therefore be used to differentiate between higher-grade mental performance and physical exercise. These parameters can be easily measured without discomfort to the subjects.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Graduated, continuously increasing exercise ; Plasma catecholamines ; Stufenweise, kontinuierlich zunehmende Ergometerarbeit ; Plasmacatecholamine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Adrenalin, Noradrenalin, Lactat, Glucose, Glycerin und die freien Fettsäuren im Blut Bowie die Herzfrequenz und Sauerstoffaufnahme wurden bei sechs gesunden männlichen Personen (28 ± 6 Jahre) während einer stufenweisen (I) und annähernd kontinuierlich (II) zunehmenden Fahrradergometrie im Sitzen bestimmt. Die maximale Herzfrequenz, die VO2 max, die maximale Lactatkonzentration und der maximale Fettsäurespiegel unterscheiden sich nicht, Adrenalin, Noradrenalin und der Glucosespiegel sind während der maximalen Ergometerarbeit bei II signifikant niedriger als bei I, der Glycerinspiegel tendenziell hoher. Auf vergleichbaren submaximalen Stufen sind Lactat und die Herzfrequenz tendenziell, Adrenalin und Noradrenalin auf mehreren Stufen bei II signifikant niedriger als bei I, die freien Fettsäuren, Glycerin und die Sauerstoffaufnahme zeigen keine signifikanten Unterschiede. Die Arbeitszeit ist bei beiden Untersuchungen vergleichbar lang, die Gesamtarbeit ist während II ca. 50% geringer, die maximale Leistung tendenziell II W im Mittel höher als bei I. Die erhobenen Befunde können Bedeutung für die Arbeitsplanung im Berufsleben, die Bewegungstherapie von Patienten und für die Trainingsgestaltung von Sportlern haben.
    Notes: Summary Adrenaline, noradrenaline, glucose, glycerol and the free fatty acids (FFA) in the blood, as well as the heart rate and oxygen intake, were tested in six healthy male volunteers (age: 28 ± 6 years) during graduated (I) and continuously (II) increasing bicycle ergometric exercise (upright body position). The maximum heart rate, the VO2 max, the maximum lactate and FFA concentration show no significant difference, whereas adrenaline, noradrenaline and the glucose levels are significantly lower, and the glycerol concentration is slightly higher during the maximum test II as compared with test I. At some submaximum exercise levels, the lactate concentration and the heart rate are slightly lower, adrenaline and noradrenaline are significantly lower during test II; the FFA, glycerol and the oxygen intake do not show any significant difference. The duration of exercise was similiar in both tests. The total work was about 50% lower in test II, and the maximum performance was slightly higher as compared with test I. These results could have significance for the planning of working conditions, the rehabilitation of patients, and the organisation of training for athletes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Paraoxonase ; Methyl-parathion ; Sister chromatid exchange ; Cell cycle ; Human lymphocytes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Paraoxon and methyl-parathion (Wofatox), frequently used organophosphate pesticides, were tested for cytogenetic effects in lymphocytes of persons with different phenotypes of paraoxonase activity. Sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), chromosome breaks, and cell cycle traverse were studied in ten individuals. Paraoxon showed no significant effects whereas methylparathion showed a dose-dependent increase in the SCE and a definite delay in the cell cycle as assessed by fluorescence plus Giemsa technique. No significant clastogenic effects and no difference in response were observed among individuals with different phenotypes of paraoxonase.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1246
    Keywords: Plasma catecholamines ; Exercise ; Plasmakatecholamine ; Körperarbeit
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Neun Probanden absolvierten 2 unterschiedliche, stufenweise Fahrrad-Ergometerbelastungen im Sitzen. Test 1 begann mit 50 Watt und wurde nach 3 min um 50 Watt als Modell einermetabolisch-kardialen Ausbelastung gesteigert. Test 2 begann mit 100 Watt and wurde nach je 15 min um 50 Watt als Modell einerperipher-muskulären Ausbelastung gesteigert. Ermittelt wurden Plasmakatecholamine, Laktat- und Glukosespiegel, Herzfrequenz und O2-Aufnahme. Folgende Resultate (Mittelwerte) wurden bei Ausbelastung beobachtet. Belastung 305 (Test 1) and 233 Watt (Test 2), Arbeitszeit 17,5 min (1) and 51 min (2), Herzfrequenz 185 min−1 (1) and 175 min−1 (2), Noradrenalin 30,7 (1) and 11,0 (2), Adrenalin 6,9 (1) and 2,0 nmol · l−1 (2), Laktat 9,2 (1) and 6,6 (2), Glukose 5,6 (1) and 4,7 mmol · 1−1 (2). Hochintensive dynamische Körperarbeit (Test 1) geht mit mehrfach höherer Plasmakatecholaminkonzentration und Laktatazidose (Arbeitsazidose) einher als ausdauernde, peripher-muskulär limitierte Körperarbeit (Test 2); dies läßt einen erhöhten kardiovaskulären and metabolischen Stress erwarten. Oberhalb 30% VO2 max ist mit Nor- and Adrenalinanstieg zu rechnen; unterhalb 50–70% VO2 max wird Steady-state-Verhalten, darüber Unsteady-state-Verhalten beobachtet. Dopamin zeigt keine deutliche Zeit- and Belastungsabhängigkeit während Körperarbeit. Nor- and Adrenalin folgen derselben initialen Plasmaeliminationskinetik 1. Ordnung (e −0,048).
    Notes: Summary Nine healthy subjects performed 2 different graded bicycle ergometric tests. The 1st test started with 50 watt and was increased 50 watt after 3 min till exhaustion as a model of a metabolic and cardiac exhaustion. The 2nd test started with 100 watt and was increased 50 watt after 15 min till exhaustion as a model of a peripheral-muscular exhaustion. The behaviour of plasma catecholamines, lactate and glucose levels, heart rate and oxygen intake was examined. The results were as following: Performance ability 305 (test 1) and 233 watt (test 2; mean values), work time 17.5 min (1) and 51 min (2), heart rate 185 min−1 (1) and 175 min−1 (2), noradrenaline 30.7 nmol/l (1) and 11.0 nmol/1 (2), adrenaline 6.9 nmol/l (1) and 2 nmol/1(2), lactate 9.2 (1) and 6.6 mmol/l (2), glucose 5.6 mmol/l (1) and 4.7 mmol/l (2). During highly intensive dynamic exercise (test 1), three times higher catecholamine and 50% higher lactate responses were observed, than during peripheral-muscular limited endurance exercise (test 2). Above an exercise level of more than 30% VO2 max., nor- and adrenaline increased significantly. Below 50–70% VO2 max. steady-state-behaviour occurred. Above this range unsteadystate-behaviour of plasma catecholamines was observed. Dopamine did not show any significant time and intensity dependent increase. Noradrenaline and adrenaline followed the same initial 1st order elimination kinetic.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Dopamine ; Experimental myocardial necroses ; Secondary cardiomyopathy of infant
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Durch hochdosierte Dopamin-Gaben lassen sich experimentell am Herzmuskel Myokardfasernekrosen erzeugen, die vorwiegend linksventrikuläre Kammerwand- und Septumanteile betreffen, aber auch im Bereich des linken Herzohres nachweisbar sind. Der mitgeteilte Kasus spricht für eine auch beim Menschen durch Dopamin zu induzierende sekundäre Cardiomyopathie. Neben der durch maximale Stimulation ausgelösten Verarmung des Myokard an energiereichen Phosphaten spielen Erhöhung und mangelnde Adaptation des Coronarwiderstandes, Noradrenalin-Freisetzung, Störung des Ventilations-Perfusions-Verhältnisses und Eröffnung und Erweiterung arteriovenöser Shunts in der Lunge mit konsekutiver Hypoxämie eine aggravierende Rolle.
    Notes: Summary When myocardial fibre necrosis was produced experimentally in rats by high doses of dopamine, the main lesions were found in the left ventricular and septal myocardium. They could also be demonstrated in the left atrium. This report, which concerns clinical observations, is suggestive of a secondary cardiomyopathy in humans due to dopamine. The following pathogenetic mechanism is envisaged. The effects of dopamine are due to myocardial depletion of high energy phosphates following maximal stimulation and the increased, though inadequate adaptation of coronary resistance. The release of norepinephrine is also important. Aggravating factors may include the disturbed relationships of pulmonary ventilation to perfusion and the opening and dilatation of arterio-venous shunts in the lung, with subsequent hypoxaemia.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-8798
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary L cells were infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCM virus). They were subcultivated and infectious virus and interfering virus were quantified at intervals. Both entities fluctuated in perfect parallelism. Superinfection with LCM virus revealed a pattern of interference that bore no simple relationship with the quantity of interfering virus present. We explain the oscillating pattern of virus replication, which characterizes this type of LCM virus carrier cultures, as being due to spontaneous shutdown of virus synthesis in conjunction with the action of a resistance factor produced by cells coinfected with infectious virus and interfering virus.
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