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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of defined lead burdens on myelination of the central and peripheral nervous systems was studied in neonatal Long-Evans rats. Pups were exposed to inorganic lead (100 or 400 mg Pb as lead acetate/kg body wt/day by gastric intubation) from day 2 following birth to 30 days of age. Accumulation of myelin in forebrain was not affected by the 100-mg dosage, but at the 400 mg/kg dosage level, myelin accumulation was reduced by approximately 42% on a per gram forebrain basis relative to vehicle-intubated animals. The deficit was over 50% on a per forebrain basis, since there was also a slight reduction in brain weight. This lead effect was observed at both 15 and 30 days of age. Accumulation of myelin in optic nerve (determined on the basis of proteolipid protein concentration) was also reduced by 30% relative to controls by this dosage level. However, myelination in sciatic nerve (determined on the basis of P0 protein concentration) was not affected by this exposure regimen. Myelin deficits were greater than could be accounted for by undernutrition arising secondary to lead exposure and were not due to a developmental delay in the onset of myelination.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1588-2837
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract Эффекты моно-и диолефинов на пиролиз ацетальдегида были суммированы и обсуждены. Было показано, что механизм “присоединения” и лпереноса водорода”, отдельно или вместе, объясняют эксперимериментальные результаты, полученные с помощью сазличных моно-и диолефинов.
    Notes: Abstract The effects of mono-and diolefins on ethanal pyrolysis are summarized and discussed. It is shown that an “addition” and a “hydrogen transfer” mechanism, separately or together, may account for the experimental results obtained with various mono- and diolefins.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Adipocyte ; Primary culture ; Fetal pig ; Histochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Primary cultures of stromal-vascular cells of adipose tissue from fetuses at 70 and 110 days of gestation were evaluated as potential model systems for studies of fetal adipocyte differentiation and proliferation. In the cultures, fat cells developed as very discrete clusters. Fat cell cluster development was dependent on initial cell density and time. Histochemical analysis for NADP-dependent dehydrogenases revealed an age of donor effect. Similar levels of enzymes (malate and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) were apparent in fat cell clusters and stromal cells in cultures of cells from fetuses at 70 days of gestation. These enzymes were only present in fat cell clusters in cultures of cells from fetuses at 110 days of gestation. The distribution of histochemically detectable esterase activity was dependent on the cell density at time of analysis. In areas of high cell density, esterase was restricted to fat cell clusters whereas, both stromal cells and fat cells were esterase reactive in areas of low cell density. Omitting PMS from the dehydrogenase media revealed differences in enzyme reactions of cells grown on collagen-coated and uncoated glass surfaces. These studies demonstrate that primary cultures of stromal-vascular cells from 110-day-old fetuses would be a useful system to identify factors involved in adipocyte proliferation and differentiation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-3270
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Self-regulation methods incorporating biofeedback are known to be useful in the treatment of psychophysiological disorders in psychologically normal patients. In this study, the effectiveness of Quieting Response (QR) training for the treatment of secondary psychophysiological complaints in psychiatric inpatients was assessed. Ten male and 27 female inpatients with a variety of secondary psychophysiological diagnoses were accepted into the study. Severely disturbed, confused, or depressed patients were excluded. All patients received QR training, which integrated EMG (electromyogram) and thermal feedback with breathing, progressive relaxation, and autogenic exercises. Daily practice of a 15-minute sequence of exercises was encouraged, and a 6-second reinforcement exercise was presented for use whenever an annoyance was encountered. No other therapeutic modalities were employed. Patients were followed for up to 2 years, and outcome was assessed with a multifactor quartile system. Rate of success at final follow-up for the inpatients (51%) was found to be equivalent to that of outpatients coming to the clinic with primary psychophysiological diagnoses (55%) and was not related to psychiatric diagnosis or nature of presenting complaint. Stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that older, less depressed individuals were more successful. Inpatients differed from nonpsychiatric patients only in the number of additional sessions received. Only one minor incident of increased psychopathology was observed. It was concluded that QR training was as effective for treating secondary psychophysiological disorders in all but the most severly disturbed inpatients as it was for the outpatient clinic population.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-3270
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Long-term follow-up evidence for biofeedback treatment of headaches, Raynaud's disease, essential hypertension, and the irritable bowel syndrome was reviewed. Acknowledging the difficulties with cross-study comparisons, the following general success rate were determined: primary idiopathic Raynaud's disease—70%, or better; vascular headache—70%, or better; mixed headache—about 60%; and muscle contraction headache—50%, or less. With relatively fewer patients, successful outcomes with the irritable bowel syndrome and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon were roughly 60% and 40%, respectively. Few cases of clinically significant long-term decreases in diastolic blood pressure were demonstrated; however, the need for medication was reduced or eliminated in some patients. There were indications that biofeedback combined with psychotherapy resulted in highest success rates. No differences were found in effectiveness between biofeedback, other relaxation techniques, and biofeedback in combination with relaxation techniques—all had essentially comparable rates of success. No correlations between physiological and psychological measures of condition at follow-up were reported. Implications and interpretations of these findings are discussed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-3270
    Keywords: Quieting Response training ; outcome prediction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Extensive personality, demographic, and symptom-related information from a heterogeneous group of more than 300 patients was examined for patterns that would discriminate between successful and unsuccessful outcomes in patients undergoing Quieting Response (QR) training, an 8-week program that integrated EMG and thermal biofeedback with a variety of relaxation exercises. Follow-up evaluations were at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Agreement between expected (from stepwise discriminant analyses) and observed outcomes was 65% (whole sample), 62% (headache only), and 70% (Raynaud's only). Unimproved patient MMPI scales D, Sc, F, Hy, and Pt were significantly elevated. A variety of additional measures used indicated elevated levels of psychological stress among unsuccessful patients. While stereotypical descriptions of successful and unsuccessful patients are proposed, patterns from outcome groups were more similar than dissimilar, and no combination of factors was identified that had sufficient predictive power for use with future patients. No statistical grounds for exclusion were found among patterns of responses to the measures employed. Factors contributing to the inaccuracy of outcome prediction are discussed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The long-term behavior of a glass mat-reinforced polypropylene has been characterized by accelerated flexural creep tests on samples of the laminate. Considerable data were collected for stress levels ranging from 200 to 7500 psi at six temperatures from room temperature to 140 °C. The material was found to behave in accordance with the linear theory of viscoelasticity except at the longer times where the creep rate increases dramatically and the specimen ruptures. The stress and temperature dependence of this “terminal creep” zone was treated by means of a slightly modified version of Schapery's thermodynamic theory of nonlinear viscoelasticity, which involves the superposition of double logarithmic plots of creep compliance versus time. The stress and temperature dependence of both the free energy function and the entropy production emerge from this treatment. A comparison of nonisothermal creep data with a prediction from the isothermal master curve is marginally acceptable. A statistical synthesis of the data discloses that the incidence of terminal creep is log-normally distributed. Moreover, the standard deviation associated with the distribution is independent of temperature. It is therefore possible to assess the probability of failure for any constant stress at any constant temperature.
    Additional Material: 17 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-3270
    Keywords: QR training ; clinical follow-up
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Clinical evidence for the long-term effectiveness of biofeedback related relaxation training is accumulating. The purpose of this report is to describe the population, self-regulation procedure, outcome criteria, and final outcome for patients who received Quieting Response (QR) training. Data from 340 patients who completed at least the first follow-up at 3 months is presented. Primary presenting symptoms were headaches, 72%; primary and secondary Raynaud's, 14%; hypertension, 4%; irritable colon, 4%; and miscellaneous, 6%. QR training integrated EMG and thermal feedback with deep breathing, progressive relaxation, and autogenic exercises presented on cassette tapes. Eight 1-hour weekly sessions were given, with emphasis on daily home exercises. Follow-up evaluations were at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. Outcome was based on change in frequency, severity, and duration of symptoms; changes in medication; and secondary benefits. Quieting Response training was found to be most beneficial for patients with primary Raynaud's disease (18 of 23 patients, or 78% successful), classic migraines (9 of 13, or 69%), and common migraines (20 of 32, or 62%), followed by mixed headaches (79 of 131, or 60%), Raynaud's plus other symptoms (9 of 15, or 60%), and the irritable colon syndrome (7 of 13, or 54%). Less successful were patients with headaches plus other symptoms (16 of 37, or 43%), muscle contraction headaches (13 of 33, or 39%), secondary Raynaud's phenomenon (4 of 10, or 40%), and essential hypertension (5 of 15, or 33%). Speculations about the differing outcomes across symptom groups were made.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1435-4373
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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