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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Anaerobic growth ; Hungate technique ; Tween 80 ; Ergosterol
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Nontrachet strain 522 was successfully grown anaerobically on various glucose concentrations in Yeast Nitrogen Base (YNB) medium (pH 3.5) prepared under an atmosphere of carbon dioxide (CO2). This growth occurred in the absence of Tween 80 and ergosterol. The medium, prepared using the Hungate technique for cultivation of strictly anaerobic bacteria, contained the reducing agent cysteine·HCl·H2O (0.03%). Anaerobic growth was stimulated by the addition of Tween 80 and ergosterol to the anaerobic medium.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: tobramycin ; newborn infants ; intrapatient variations ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Nineteen newborn infants receiving tobramycin, 2.5 mg/kg every 12 h were studied on two occasions at steady-state during the first week of postnatal age. The two studies were separated by two to four days. Total body clearance of tobramycin averaged 1.15 and 1.14 ml/min/kg (p〉0.05), apparent volume of distribution averaged 0.82 and 0.68 l/kg (p〉0.05), and elimination half-life averaged 8.6 and 7.1 h (p〉0.05), during the first and second study, respectively. When the data were further analyzed based on the birth weight, tobramycin kinetics changed during the second study compared to the first study in very low birth weight infants. In eight infants ⩽1.5 kg birth weight, although total clearance of tobramycin was similar, the average apparent volume of distribution decreased from 1.04 l/kg during the first study to 0.73 l/kg during the second study (p〈0.05) and elimination half-life from 11.1 h during the first study to 8.7 h during the second study (p〈0.05). These data indicate that these infants may require a change in dosing interval with continued tobramycin therapy during the first week of postnatal age. Intrapatient variation in tobramycin kinetics should be considered, in addition to the interpatient variation reported previously, when monitoring the serum concentration to individualize tobramycin therapy in newborn infants ⩽1.5 kg birth weight.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: acetaminophen ; pediatric patients ; fever therapy ; accumulation ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Acetaminophen serum concentrations were studied in 21 infants and children with fever. The maximum serum concentrations ranged from 9.96 to 19.6 µg/ml after a single dose of 12–14 mg/kg and 13.9 to 40.1 µg/ml after a single dose of 22–27 mg/kg. Ten patients were restudied at steadystate after repeat doses had been given every 4 or 8 h for 1 to 3 days. Total area under the acetaminophen serum concentration-time curve normalized for dose averaged 0.181 (ml/min/kg)−1 after the first dose and 0.202 (ml/min/kg)−1 at steady-state (p〈0.05). Five patients showed a 13 to 44% increase in the AUC; one had a 10% decrease in the AUC; and four had less than 6% change in the AUC. There was no evidence of hepatotoxicity. These data suggest that acetaminophen may accumulate after repeated therapeutic doses in children with fever.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Hemoglobins M and unstable hemoglobins cause clinical syndromes that are transmitted in autosomal dominant fashion. Pedigrees of 50 probands with de novo mutations producing unstable Hb disease or Hb M disease were compiled. Cases were ascertained (1) by screening the relevant literature published from 1950 through 1980 and (2) through personal communication. Additional pedigree data on several published cases were collected, and a depository containing all available information rekated to de novo Hb mutants was established. The 50 probands were born in 14 countries between 1922 and 1976. Paternity was tested in 36% of the cases, and no instance of false paternity was noted. The data were used to test for an association of advanced parental age with the appearance of de novo mutants. Paternal ages at the probands' births ranged from 20 to 50 years, with a mean of 32.7 years. Maternal ages ranged from 18 to 43 years, with a mean of 28.5 years. For each year and country (or, where necessary, for the nearest possible year and/or a demographically similar country), the cumulative frequency distributions of the ages of parents who had a child in that country and year were computed; the ages of each proband's father and mother were then expressed as percentiles on these distributions. The distribution of paternal age percentiles was shifted toward the upper end of the range, with 11 of the 50 paternal ages falling between the 90th and 100th percentiles. The distribution of maternal age percentiles was more complex, with one peak (10 of 50 ages) falling between the 30th and 40th percentiles and a second peak (10 of 50 ages), between the 90th and 100th percentiles. These distributions, though suggestive of an association of advanced parental age and the appearance of de novo mutations that cause unstable Hb disease or methemoglobinemic cyanosis, were not significantly different from those uniform distributions expected in the absence of a parental age effect.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Freshly delivered human placentas were exposed to ultrasound for 30 min using a diagnostic linear array unit. Blood was then drawn and cultured in the presence of bromodeoxyuridine, and the frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in the lymphocytes determined. There was no statistically significant difference in SCE frequencies between control and exposed cells; the frequencies of SCEs per cell ranged from 4.50 to 6.02 for control and from 4.66 to 6.10 for exposed cells in five separate experiments. Positive control mitomycin C treated cells were significantly affected, with more than 50 SCEs per cell.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: acetaminophen ; pediatric patients ; fever therapy ; accumulation ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Acetaminophen serum concentrations were studied in 21 infants and children with fever. The maximum serum concentrations ranged from 9.96 to 19.6 µg/ml after a single dose of 12–14 mg/kg and 13.9 to 40.1 µg/ml after a single dose of 22–27 mg/kg. Ten patients were restudied at steadystate after repeat doses had been given every 4 or 8 h for 1 to 3 days. Total area under the acetaminophen serum concentration-time curve normalized for dose averaged 0.181 (ml/min/kg)−1 after the first dose and 0.202 (ml/min/kg)−1 at steady-state (p〈0.05). Five patients showed a 13 to 44% increase in the AUC; one had a 10% decrease in the AUC; and four had less than 6% change in the AUC. There was no evidence of hepatotoxicity. These data suggest that acetaminophen may accumulate after repeated therapeutic doses in children with fever.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Pore fluid chemistry ; Stable sliding ; Fault gouge
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Single-cycle and multiple-cycle frictional-sliding experiments were employed to evaluate the effects of pore fluid environments on yield strength, frictional-sliding dynamics, and gouge production and morphology. Circular right cylinders cored from Berea sandstone sawcut at 35° to the axes were saturated in water, an inorganic brine, and various anionic, cationic, and nonionic aqueous surface-active agents. Samples were deformed under an effective confining pressure of 50 MPa and an axial strain rate of 6×10−5 sec−1 until a 2% axial strain beyond yield (defined as the onset of sliding) was achieved. All samples were displaced by stable sliding. In the single-cycle tests the unsaturated and water-saturated samples displayed small stress peaks at yield. During stable sliding samples saturated with DTAB and SDS displayed slight increases in differential stress and statistically significant higher frictional coefficients than other environments (including water) but were very similar in behavior to dry, unsaturated samples. In the multiple-cycle tests, samples were loaded to 2% strain beyond yield and unloaded to a differential stress of approximately 5–10 MPa a total of four times. These results further suggest that DTAB exerts a ‘strengthening’ effect on the sandstone relative to water which, to a limiting value, increased with displacement. The DTAB and SDS environments also produced a coarser grain-size distribution in the gouge relative to gouge produced in the other environments. Investigation of the gouge by scanning electron microscope revealed that these larger ‘grains’ were composed of dense, apparently cemented aggregates of ultrafine, platy quartz particles.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The elastic and inelastic scattering of alpha particles from Cd and Te isotopes are analysed in terms of a single folding model in which the scattering potential is approximated by folding an effectiveα-nucleon interaction into the mass distribution of the target nuclei. Excellent fits are obtained to the elastic scattering data. However, to obtain equally good fits to inelastic scattering data arbitrary adjustments of the effective interaction are required.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1420-908X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Leukotrienes (C4, D4) have been shown to enhance mucus seeretion in both isolated human airway tissue and intact canine tracheain vivo. They also have been implicated as putative mediators in several airways diseases. In previous canine studies the mucus enhancing effect of leukotriene-C4 was blocked by atropine, FLP 55,712, and hexamethonium but not by cutting the superior laryngeal and vagus nerves. We anesthetized mongrel dogs with chloralose (100 mg/kg) and urethane (500 mg/kg) and ventilated them on a pump. To visualize the secretions from submucosal glands, we exposed the mucosa of the upper trachea and coated its surface with powdered tantalum. Seeretions from the glands formed elevation in the tantalum layer (hillocks) with time: the number of tracheal hillocks (an index of mucus secretion) was measured at one or more of the four time points on six dogs after each treatment of the treatment sequence: no LTC4, LTC4, no LTC4+ blocker, and LTC4+ blocker. The potential blocker was diphenhydramine, an H1 antagonist for histamine. LTC4 was injected into the cranial thyroid artery which directly feeds the tracheal segment. We observed hillocks through a dissecting microscope, and the number of hillocks per 1.2 cm2 were counted for a 1–4 min interval. In 6 dogs with 12 responses, LTC4 (10 μg) gave a positive response that was significantly different from control (p〈0.01–0.05) at 2–4 min. Diphenhydramine (n=6), 0.5 mg/kg, a dose which blocked a histamine challenge without blocking an acetylcholine challenge of secretion, gave a statistically significant (p〈0.01–0.05) reduction in mucus secretion at 1–4 min. These results support the conclusion that leukotriene C4 induces mucus secretion in dogs that is blocked by prior diphenhydramine administration. This would indicate histamine has a role, but as yet an unknown mechanism in the action of leukotriene-C4 in enhancing mucus.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1520-6904
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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