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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: dexamethasone phosphate ; dexamethasone sulphate ; intravenous injection ; bioavailability ; pituitary-adreno-cortical suppression ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The metabolic fate and ACTH-supressant activity of two injectable dexamethasone esters, 21-phosphate and 21-sulphate, were studied in healthy men. After i.v. injection of 20 mg free steroid alcohol, dexamethasone phosphate was efficiently hydrolyzed to free dexamethasone, reaching its peak plasma concentration within 5 min. About 9% of the administered dose appeared in the urine as free dexamethasone. By contrast, virtually no free dexamethasone was found in plasma and urine after injection of dexamethasone sulphate. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed that dexamethasone sulphate had a shorter plasma half-life and a higher metabolic clearance rate than free dexamethasone. A larger fraction (60%) of dexamethasone sulphate was rapidly excreted unmetabolized in urine. The plasma cortisol level was significantly suppressed for more than 24 h after dexamethasone phosphate, while the plasma cortisol profile after dexamethasone sulphate merely showed physiological circadian variations. When the steroid esters were injected after pretreatment with metyrapone, a definite suppression of plasma ACTH was noted after dexamethasone phosphate, but again, dexamethasone sulphate was ineffective. These results cast serious doubt on the clinical value of dexamethasone sulphate as an injectable glucocorticoid, and critical reevaluation of this preparation is needed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Lens proteins ; human diabetic cataracts ; non-enzymatic glycosylation ; 5-hydroxymethylfurfural ; thiobarbituric acid
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The rates of glycosylation of lens proteins were determined in extracts of human ‘diabetic’ and ‘senile’ cataractous lenses by a method employing thiobarbituric acid. Incubation of soluble lens proteins (6,500×g supernatant of homogenates) in vitro with various concentrations of D-glucose in sodium phosphate buffer (50 mmol/l, pH 7.2) resulted in a gradual glycosylation which was time and concentration dependent. Glycosylated proteins from the cataractous lenses of 21 senile and 12 diabetic subjects afforded 0.72 ±0.22 and 1.84±0.44 nmol 5-hydroxymethylfurfural/mg protein (mean±SD), respectively. The value is significantly higher in the diabetic than in the senile group (p〈0.001), although the mean age of the diabetic patients (67 years) was significantly younger than that of senile subjects (75 years; p〈0.01). These results indicate that human lens proteins can be glycosylated both in vitro and in vivo, and that hyperglycaemia can accelerate the non-enzymatic glycosylation of lens proteins in diabetic patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-069X
    Keywords: MRL/l mouse ; New Zealand mouse ; Lupus band test ; Anti-DNA antibodies ; Proteinuria
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The MRL-lpr/lpr(MRL/l) mouse is a new animal model for human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and skin lesions with hair loss and scab formation are one of the characteristic manifestations in this mouse. We investigated the histopathology of the skin lesions in MRL/l mice and studied the related autoimmune phenomenon. Light microscopical observations revealed hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, hypergranulosis, liquefaction, vasodilation in the dermis and T-cell infiltration into the dermis at the age of 5 months (mo). Immunohistological studies showed the presence of immunoglobulins and/or complement depositions at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ). In some mice there was deposition of immunoglobulin at the DEJ at 2 mo and in 90%–100% of MRL/l mice at over 5 mo. Temporal relationship was present among cutaneous immunoglobulin depositions, the occurrence of anti-DNA antibodies and proteinuria. These findings suggest that MRL/l mice might provide a new aid for studying the biological mechanisms of the development of skin lesions in human SLE.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular life sciences 36 (1980), S. 236-238 
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The metabolism of antipyrine was studied in cancer patients. Antipyrine elimination might be decreased in cancer patients. Increase in antipyrine half-life is not primarily due to the presence of a tumor but rather to the nutritional status and liver function of an individual.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The micropore volume of N-containing activated carbon was increased and the average radius of supermicropore was extended by treatment with methylol melamine urea solution.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Contact dermatitis 9 (1983), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-0536
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Rat parenchymal hepatocytes isolated with collagenase were cultured as monolayers in Williams medium E supplemented with calf serum. Freshly isolated cells showed very low activities of various liver functions, and they had to be cultured for 6-24 h to allow recovery of these functions. Insulin and dexamethasone greatly increased cell viability in primary culture. After culture for 24 h, these cells showed various liver functions as seen in vivo and responded well to various added hormones and amino acids. The concentrations of amino acids in the medium regulated synthesis of serum proteins and insulin stimulated lipogenesis, which in turn regulated synthesis of lipoproteins. Insulin also stimulated glycogen synthesis and the stimulation was parallel with the number of insulin receptors. Glucagon stimulated glycogenolysis and its stimulation involved the function of the cytoskeleton. Glucagon and dexamethasone induced various enzymes of amino acid catabolism, such as tryptophan oxygenase, tyrosine aminotransferase and serine dehydratase. These inductions were inhibited by insulin or catecholamine. The effect of catecholamine was due to its α-adrenergic action. The β-action of isoproterenol was low in freshly isolated cells, but increased during culture of the cells. Acquirement of hormonal responses during neonatal development can be studied in this culture system. Mature hepatocytes in culture are usually quiescent, but when insulin and epidermal growth factor were added, DNA synthesis by the cells increased markedly and they showed density-dependent growth. In this culture system, serum could be omitted for 2 days when the dishes were coated with fibronectin without appreciable change of functions, but serum was needed for longer culture of the cells. A factor that increased cell survival was found in serum and in pituitary gland. These results show that hepatocytes in primary culture are a simple and useful system for studies of liver functions in vitro and related works were also reviewed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1741-0444
    Keywords: Automatic determination ; Cardiac output ; Exercise ; Impedance plethysmograph
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A computer-based system has been developed that enables the continuous measurement of cardiac output at rest as well as during exercise. The respiratory and motion artefacts appearing in the first derivative of the transthoracic impedance change (dZ/dt) were eliminated by adopting an ensemble averaging technique. A sufficiently high correlation was observed between cardiac outputs determined by the impedance and CO2 rebreathing methods. The system may facilitate the physiological investigation of cardiac function during exercise.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Inhomogeneity ; gelation process ; polydimethylsiloxane ; Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering ; intensity ratio ; correlation length
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract An isothermal end-link reaction process in polydimethylsiloxanes is studied by Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering. From the onset of gelation, the Rayleigh line shows increases in intensity which are of the Brillouin lines intensity level, and which are ascribed to the occurrence of static density fluctuations, i. e., of inhomogeneities. Using a density correlation function of an exponential type, the extent and magnitude of the inhomogeneities are estimated from the Rayleigh line intensity corrected for thermal fluctuation factors, and inhomogeneities with correlation length of the order of 100 å are found to appear in network structures during the gelation process. It is suggested that the inhomogeneities results from nonuniform progress of crosslink reactions. These inhomogeneities do not affect the propagation of hypersonic sound.
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