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  • 1980-1984  (2)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Variance ; trace/gases ; stratosphere ; mixing length ; mixing surfaces
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The relative variances in stratospheric observations of longlived trace gases CH4, N2O, CF2Cl2, CFCl3 show large differences. These differences are greatly reduced when the local mean standard deviation is normalized to the local vertical gradient. This ratio, called ‘equivalent displacement height’ exhibits a characteristic vertical profile which is very similar for all the longlived trace gases, as well as for O3. With the help of this ratio, it is demonstrated that the variances are essentially due to natural causes, i.e., transport. Using the mixing length hypothesis a theoretical expression for the equivalent displacement height is derived. From it the meridional slope of the mixing surfaces and the mixing length can be calculated as function of the altitude. Additional information is obtained on the variance of that slope. The uncertainty of the measured mean trace gas profiles is defined.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-1803
    Keywords: global myocardial ischaemia ; epicardial mapping ; ECG
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Experiments were performed on 10 dog hearts undergone 15 to 90-minute normothermic arrests and 60-minute reperfusion in a special heart-lung model. The purpose of the experiments was to characterize the global ischaemic effects recorded on epicardial electrograms. The duration of QRS complexes and of RR intervals, the integral of ST segment shifts (σST), the number of points showed ST segment displacements (NoST) and the ST segment isopotential map obtained by computer control were evaluated. Only a minor ST segment deviation, a small increase in duration of QRS complexes and of RR intervals with bradycardia and a tendency to electrical stability were found after global ischaemic influences. These observations indicate that pathological electrical manifestations occurring after a global ischaemia are less serious than those occurring after a focal ischaemia.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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