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  • 1
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Six patients with malignant head and neck tumors were treated using a new technique of i.a. cytostatic drug infusion, i.a. therapy was carried out percutaneously, following neck dissection and vascularsurgical preparation of the neck arteries: the external carotid artery was prolonged by an autogenic saphenal vein graft and anastomosed more proximally to the common carotid artery. By this method, i.a. therapy with Methotrexate, Bleomycin and Cisplatinum could be performed over several weeks. Three of the patients had only incomplete remission because of early thrombosis of the graft, due to insufficient anticoagulation. However, in three patients i.a. therapy could be continued until complete remission was attained.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary With different ENT disorders (e. g., sudden hearing loss, facial-nerve paralysis) 114 patients were pretreated with an i.v. injection of a 20 ml solution 15% of monovalent haptendextran (dextran 1, ¯Mw: 1000, Pharmacia AB, Sweden) 2 min prior to the first infusion of dextran 40 (dx40, Mw: 40,000). The mechanism of action of pretreatment with haptendextran is considered to consist in the neutralization of circulating dextran-reactive antibodies (DRA), which have been shown to be the cause of rare dextran-induced anaphylactic reactions (DIAR), sometimes with a fatal outcome. Out of the 114 patients no DIAR was observed. These results are part of a prospective multicenter study demonstrating the effectiveness of prophylaxis with 20 ml haptendextran in 24,513 patients. In the total study no fatal reaction with cardiac or respiratory arrest was observed. As the individual risk for a patient to suffer a DIAR from a dextran solution, can not be estimated in advance, the i.v. prophylaxis with 20 ml haptendextran is strongly recommended before each first infusion of a dextran solution. However, one should be aware that individuals with extremely high DRA-titers may still develop a mild anaphylaxis in spite of the routine pretreatment with 20 ml haptendextran; a high dose of 30 or 40 ml haptendextran would be necessary to prevent these reactions too.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Intra-arterial chemotherapy ; Pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Mathematically based pharmacokinetic models confirmed the general belief that intra-arterial (i.a.) cytostatic drug infusion can produce an increase in local tissue levels and a reduction in systemic drug availability. The increase in local drug concentration depends largely on the blood-flow rate of the infused artery and the rate of drug elimination from the rest of the body. In an experimental canine model the pharmacokinetics of i.a. infusion were studied using the femoral artery as the site of infusion and an Anger camera for continuous measurement of drug concentration in the target region. Several radioactively labelled drugs with different kinetics were infused over 80 min. The decay phase after the end of i.a. infusion was also monitored. The results indicate that even the femoral artery with its high blood flow is a suitable site for i.a. infusion, provided the plasma half-life of the drug is short enough. Consequently, arteries with lower blood flow (e.g., lingual artery) are even more suitable for i.a. infusion. The various diagrams obtained from this study provide a quick indication of whether or not a drug is suitable in a certain clinical situation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1420-908X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Treatment of male rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 2 × weekly 0.2 ml/kg p.o.) and a 5% alcohol solution, instead of drinking water, for 4 weeks led to marked increases in serum enzyme activities (GOT, GPT, SDH), hepatic triglyceride and hydroxyproline content. Diethyl dithiocarbamate (dithiocarb, 200 mg/kg p.o.) simultaneously applied with CCl4 totally suppressed the elevation in serum enzyme activities and hepatic hydroxyproline concentration, and partially suppressed that of the triglyceride content. (+)-Catechin (50–300 mg/kg p.o.). simultaneously applied with CCl4 had no influence on the enhanced serum enzymes, but depressed the augmented content of both hepatic triglyceride and hydroxyproline in a dose-dependent way. The most effective dose with respect to the reduction of the hydroxyproline concentration was 100 mg/kg (+)-catechin; the highest dose (300 mg/kg), however, enhanced the CCl4-alcohol-induced hydroxyproline augmentation.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 37 (1981), S. 916-920 
    ISSN: 1600-5724
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Accurate neutron-diffraction data from a highly perfect crystal of SrTiO3 have been used to assess the extinction model of Becker & Coppens [Acta Cryst. (1974), A30, 129-147, 148-153; Acta Cryst. (1975), A31, 417--425] in refining reliable thermal parameters from data very strongly affected by extinction. The model incorporates approximations not evidently reasonable in this case - namely, the (usual) kinematical approximation and the mosaic-block description of crystal microstructure. However, it is shown that a careful choice of parameterization within the overall motel (e.g. between a Gaussian and a Lorentzian function for the distribution of mosaic-block orientations) can yield a uniformly good description of the extinction per se - except for reflections extinguished by more than about 90% on intensity. The refined thermal parameters are in remarkably good agreement with values obtained independently from lattice-dynamical calculations.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1520-5118
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Zimelidine ; Norzimelidine ; Liver affection ; Antidepressants ; Plasma concentrations ; Side effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A new serotonin uptake inhibitor zimelidine was studied in 16 endogenously depressed inpatients, who received 150 mg/day orally during 3–6 weeks in a phase II-type study. Plasma concentrations of zimelidine and its main metabolite norzimelidine were determined twice a week. Ten patients obtained a welldefined steady-state plasma level within 1–2 weeks, while three patients still had increasing concentrations of both substances or only norzimelidine within the investigation period. In two patients, biochemical affection of the liver could be demonstrated during the treatment; one associated with moderate clinical symptoms (dizziness and fever), the other without clinical symptoms. Both patients recovered upon cessation of the zimelidine treatment. In the former patient, very high concentrations of zimelidine at the time of hepatic symptoms were demonstrated, while the latter patient was within the average concentration range. Other adverse reactions were mild and few, particularly with respect to anticholinergic effects. With the applied, probably suboptimal, dosage the therapeutic response was only satisfactory in five cases.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Amino acid conjugates ; Cell suspension culture ; 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid ; β-D-Glucoside conjugates ; Glycine ; Triticum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The metabolism of [2-14C]- and [ring-U-14C]2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) has been studied in cell suspension cultures of soybean (Glycine max L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). 2,4-D was extensively metabolized by both cultures, the rates of metabolism and the metabolite patterns remaining constant over at least 60 (soybean) and 25 (wheat) growth cycles. Amino acid conjugates were the predominant metabolite fraction in soybean cells whereas β-D-glucoside conjugates predominated in wheat cells. The two cell types studied also differed in the amino acid compositions of the amino acid conjugate fractions and in the aglycone patterns of the β-D-glucoside fractions. Novel metabolite fractions of both wheat and soybean cells included a polar water-soluble metabolite fraction and a covalently modified protein fraction of low molecular weight.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Cell suspension culture ; 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid ; Glycine ; Lignin ; Triticum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Cell suspension cultures of soybean (Glycine max L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) incorporated 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) into a metabolite fraction which was insoluble in ethanol, water, and hot sodium dodecylsulphate. Further treatment with hot dimethylformamide solubilized a material which by the following criteria appeared to consist of 2,4-D derivatives covalently bound to lignin: i) co-chromatography of radioactivity and of UV-absorbing material upon gel permeation chromatography; ii) spectral similarity with authentic lignins (IR- and UV-spectra, phloroglucinol reaction), 2,4-D appeared to be incorporated as the intact molecule, as shown by comparison of ring- and sidechain-labeled 2,4-D and by detection of monohydroxylated and intact 2,4-D as the major radioactive products of acid hydrolysis. The same compounds were released from the metabolite material which could not be solubilized in dimethylformamide. The incorporation of xenobiotics or their metabolites into lignin, followed by deposition in the cell wall, is suggested as a general pathway for ‘local excretion’ and detoxification by plant cells.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cell & tissue research 221 (1981), S. 17-43 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Second optic ganglion (medulla) ; Third optic ganglion (lobula) ; Neuronal elements ; Golgi studies ; Worker bee
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The gross morphology and the fine-structural characteristics of neurones of the second and third optic ganglia of the honeybee Apis mellifera were investigated light microscopically on the basis of Golgi (selective silver)- and reduced silver preparations. The second optic ganglion, the medulla, is ovoid in shape and has a slightly convex distal surface and a slightly concave proximal surface. The medullar outer levels are characteristically composed of neuronal arrangements showing strict precision of their geometrical spacing proximally as far as a pronounced layer of tangential fibre elements comprising the serpentine layer of the medulla. At the inner medullary levels retinotopic channels are again multiplied, and the arrangement of axons and dendrites contribute to a complex lattice. The third optic ganglion, the lobula, is interposed between the medulla and the protocerebrum. It is the site of termination of the third-order neurones. The lobula in hymenopterans appears, in contrast to dipterans, odonates and lepidopterans, as a single neuropilic mass. A short review of the electrophysiological data concerning these two ganglia has been tentatively correlated with some of the anatomical data.
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