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  • 1980-1984  (3)
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Year
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 34 (1980), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Choline acetyltransferase (CAT) from catfish brain has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by a combination of ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration, and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme solutions showed only one protein band on both 7.5% polyacrylamide gel and gradient (3.5% to 15%) polyacrylamide gel with the enzyme activity coincident with the protein band. Furthermore, when the gel slice from which the enzyme was extracted was applied to a gradient polyacrylamide gel, a single protein band was also obtained. The purified enzyme preparations represented a 1510-fold purification over the crude homogenate. The moiecular weight of the enzyme was estimated as 128.000 and 140,000 from gel filtration and gradient (3.5% to 15%) polyacrylamide gel, respectively. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel, the purified enzyme preparations showed two protein bands, with molecular weights of 34,000 and 68,000. Since the native enzyme may be a tetramer, the 68.000 subunit may be a dimer of the smallest subunit. The maximum activity of the enzyme appears at pH 7.2; the values of Km for choline and for acetyl CoA are 400 and 92 μM, respectively, and Vmax was obtained as 2.2 × 10-3μmol/min/mg protein. CAT antibodies were obtained from rabbit that had received six biweekly injections with a total of 120 μg of the purified protein. Double immunodiffusion test with CAT antibodies and a crude enzyme extract from catfish brains showed only a single, sharp precipitin band, suggesting that the antibodies are specific only to CAT and antigen and that the purified CAT preparation is monodisperse.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The localization of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons in the goldfish and the rabbit retina has been studied by immunocytochemical localization of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme L-glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, L-glutamate 1-carboxy-lase, EC 4.1.1.15) and by [3H] GABA uptake autoradiography. In the goldfish retina, GAD is localized in some horizontal cells (H1 type), a few amacrine cells and sublamina b of the inner plexiform layer. Results from immunocytochemical studies of GAD-containing neurons and autoradiographic studies of GABA uptake reveals a marked similarity in the labeling pattern suggesting that in goldfish retina, the neurons which possess a high-affinity system for GABA uptake also contain significant levels of GAD. In the rabbit retina, when Triton X-100 was included in immunocytochemical incubations with a modified protein A-peroxidase-antiperoxidase method, reaction product was found in four broad, evenly spaced laminae within the inner plexiform layer. In the absence of the detergent, these laminae were seen to be composed of small, punctate deposits. When colchicine was injected intravitreally before glutamate decarboxylase staining, cell bodies with the characteristic shape and location of amacrine cells were found to be immunochemically labeled. Electron microscopic examination showed that these processes were presynaptic to ganglion cell dendrites (infrequently), amacrine cell telodendrons, and bipolar cell terminals. Often, bipolar cell terminals were found which were densely innervated by several GAD-positive processes. No definite synapses were observed in which a GAD-positive process represented the postsynaptic element. In autoradiographic studies by intravitreal injection of [3H] GABA a diffuse labeling of the inner plexiform layer and a dense labeling of certain amacrine cell bodies in the inner nuclear layer was observed. Both immunocytochemical and autoradiographic results support the notion that certain, if not all, amacrine cells use GABA as their neurotransmitter.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The localization of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons in the goldfish and the rabbit retina has been studied by immunocytochemical localization of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme L-glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, L-glutamate 1-carboxy-lase, EC 4.1.1.15) and by [3H] GABA uptake autoradiography. In the goldfish retina, GAD is localized in some horizontal cells (H1 type), a few amacrine cells and sublamina b of the inner plexiform layer. Results from immunocytochemical studies of GAD-containing neurons and autoradiographic studies of GABA uptake reveals a marked similarity in the labeling pattern suggesting that in goldfish retina, the neurons which possess a high-affinity system for GABA uptake also contain significant levels of GAD. In the rabbit retina, when Triton X-100 was included in immunocytochemical incubations with a modified protein A-peroxidase-antiperoxidase method, reaction product was found in four broad, evenly spaced laminae within the inner plexiform layer. In the absence of the detergent, these laminae were seen to be composed of small, punctate deposits. When colchicine was injected intravitreally before glutamate decarboxylase staining, cell bodies with the characteristic shape and location of amacrine cells were found to be immunochemically labeled. Electron microscopic examination showed that these processes were presynaptic to ganglion cell dendrites (infrequently), amacrine cell telodendrons, and bipolar cell terminals. Often, bipolar cell terminals were found which were densely innervated by several GAD-positive processes. No definite synapses were observed in which a GAD-positive process represented the postsynaptic element. In autoradiographic studies by intravitreal injection of [3H] GABA a diffuse labeling of the inner plexiform layer and a dense labeling of certain amacrine cell bodies in the inner nuclear layer was observed. Both immunocytochemical and autoradiographic results support the notion that certain, if not all, amacrine cells use GABA as their neurotransmitter.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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