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  • 1975-1979  (10)
  • 1910-1914  (1)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 44 (1979), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: 21 different sausage meats were chemically analyzed to determine the amounts of total collagen, insoluble collagen, and percentage soluble collagen present in each meat. A simple cookout test was also conducted to determine its usefulness in evaluating the bind characteristics of raw sausage materials. Values for total collagen, insoluble collagen, and percentage soluble collagen were quite variable among the meats sampled. Of the three collagen profile components studied, only percentage soluble collagen was observed to, be highly related to the binding characteristics of meat. Values for milliliters of fat and water lost during cooking were not significantly related to bind values. This study indicates a need for additional research to investigate the role of collagen profile components in the I formation of sausage batters.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Subjective ratings for muscle color and firmness were utilized to segment 299 fresh hams into four different quality groups (low, average, high, dark and soft). Individual hams were pumped to 115% of their green weights with a 62° brine (8–2–2 mixture) by either an artery (188 hams) or stitch (111 hams) brine injection system and then held at 3°C for a 21-day brine equalization period. The hams were then washed, placed in stockinettes and smoked. Prior to smoking, individual hams were assigned to one of six smoking schedules which were based upon three different levels of relative humidity (40, 60 and 80%) and two heating schedules (60, 71, 82°C and 49, 60, 71°C, dry bulb). Center-cut slices (1.25 cm thick) were removed from five or six average quality hams in each smoking schedule. Three 0.3 cm thick slices were removed from the top (medial side) and two 0.3 cm thick slices from the bottom (lateral side) of each center-cut slice for smoke deposition determinations (phenolic compounds). Artery-pumped hams produced significantly higher processing yields than the stitch-pumped hams. Smoke deposition was not affected by method of brine injection. Processing yields were significantly lower for the low-quality group of hams. Smoking schedules employing the lower smokehouse temperatures and relative humidities (40 and 60%) produced higher overall processing yields. At the higher temperature schedule, 60% relative humidity decidedly reduced overall processing yields. Processors desiring to use higher smokehouse temperatures should use a relative humidity greater than or less than, but not equal to, 60% to optimize processing yields. The concentrations of phenols observed in all six treatments would result in acceptable smoke flavor ratings.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Metmyoglobin (Mb+) reduction was studied in ground beef, beef slurries and extracts held in air, nitrogen or CO-air mixtures. Significant Mb+ reduction occurred in aerobic extracts but not in ground beef or slurries in the presence of ferricyanide. A nonenzymatic electron trans. fer was demonstrated in extracts under these conditions. At normal meat pH (5.6), carbon monoxide (CO) accelerated Mb+ reduction, even in the presence of air, with the rate of reduction dependent upon CO concentration. Neither the addition of catalase nor compounds that inhibit the electron transport chain markedly affected Mb+ reduction under a CO atmosphere while arsenate addition slightly accelerated the reaction. The use of ferricyanide as the pigment oxidant increased the Mb+ reduction rate in aerobic extracts and in all systems under CO, but was not necessary to observe reduction under CO. Possible mechanisms for the CO-enhanced reduction of Mb+ are explored.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The longissimus and semimembranosus muscles were obtained from 5 carcasses of each of 13 breeds or breed crosses. These carcasses exhibited small and modest degrees of marbling and were obtained from cattle fed on an 85% concentrate ration for the same length of time. Palatability, shear force and cooking loss data were recorded after ovenroasting longissimus and semimembranosus steaks and braising semimembranosus steaks. Roasted longissimus steaks had more desirable (P 〉 0.05) flavor, juiciness, tenderness, amount of connective tissue and overall satisfaction scores with less cooking losses than roasted semimembranosus samples. Roasted semimembranosus steaks possessed more desirable (P 〉 0.05) flavor, juiciness, tenderness and overall satisfaction scores than braised semimembranosus steaks. Neither breed nor the interaction involving breed with muscle location-cooking method proved to be significant (P 〈 0.05) factors affecting palatability traits. Correlation coefficients were extremely low between palatability attributes of the longissimus and those of the semimembranosus. Likewise, relationships were small in magnitude among palatability traits obtained from roasted semimembranosus vs those noted for the braised semimembranosus. These results imply that palatability values obtained for one muscle or by one method of cookery have low predictive capabilities for another muscle or method of cookery when steaks are derived from cattle possessing very limited differences in maturity, marbling and preslaughter management.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 43 (1978), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Environmental conditions (temperature, humidity and air velocity) were monitored inside refrigerated trailers loaded with beef carcasses during stationary and in-transit trials. The effects on meat color maintenance were followed on meat samples located throughout the trucks. The effect of initial carcass heat load on color maintenance during transport was studied utilizing a simulated trailer environment. Results show that an excellent environment is maintained in refrigerated trailers for beef color maintenance in-transit despite fluctuations in outside temperature and over-the-road conditions. Results from tests in which carcasses with elevated internal round temperature (15°C) were held in a simulated trailer environment suggests that shipping of such carcasses in refrigerated trailers could lead to bacterial growth and discoloration in-transit.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 40 (1975), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effects of three levels of fat (25, 30 and 35%), nonfat dry milk (NFDM) (0, 5 and 10%) and added water (yields of 115, 130 and 125% of the original meat block) on the sensory qualities of spiced luncheon loaves were evaluated. A 20-member trained taste panel evaluated each loaf for color, flavor, firmness and general acceptability characteristics and a Universal Instron Testing Instrument was employed for objective texture measurements. Fat level and added water (yield) had highly significant (P 〉 0.01) effects on color while fat level influenced the flavor characteristics of the product. All variables tested significantly (P 〉 0.01) affected firmness, while fat content influenced (P 〉 0.01) the general acceptability of the loaves. For all responses measured, a significant (P 〉 0.05) interaction between levels of fat and NFDM existed. Taste panel members indicated a preference for loaves containing 30% fat and 5.0% NFDM. Color scores and firmness decreased as the amount of added water increased. Product shrinkage increased as added water (yield) was increased but decreased as the amount of NFDM was added to the formula.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Industrial & engineering chemistry 4 (1912), S. 901-903 
    ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Eighteen beef briskets obtained from USDA Choice carcasses were boned and randomly assigned to either a 4°C or -10°C storage treatment for 72 hr. The frozen briskets were then placed in a 4°C cooler and held until attaining an internal temperature of 3–4°C. After thawing, all briskets were pumped to 0, 10 or 20% of their green weight (3 briskets/group/pumping treatment) and held for 2 days in a cover pickle of the same salinity. Weight losses were determined after a 2-day immersion period and chemical and organoleptic samples were obtained 2, 7 and 14 days after pumping. These data indicate that processing yields were not significantly affected by degree of pump, storage at - 10°C prior to processing or specific gravity values. Residual nitrite values were not significantly affected by freezing treatments prior to processing or specific gravity values. Nitrite levels were similar at 2 and 14 days after pumping at all pumping levels. After 7 days of storage, residual nitrite levels were less than 50 ppm in all briskets. Sensory ratings for tenderness and juiciness were observed to increase as time after pumping increased.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 33 (1977), S. 962-967 
    ISSN: 1600-5724
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: The method of determining corrections to neutron time-of-flight diffraction data by Monte Carlo techniques is costly since a large range of neutron wavelengths must be considered. An optimized simulation is presented in which many wavelengths are considered simultaneously, while paths are traced only once for all wavelengths. Collision positions and scattering angles are selected from cumulative distribution functions representing all neutron wavelengths simulated. The scattered intensity is computed by weighting the simulated paths to account for the probability of their occurrence for each wavelength. The results of a calculation for a vanadium slab are given as an example.
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