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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Digoxin ; diuretics ; drug compliance ; drug utilization ; intoxication ; plasma levels
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Plasma digoxin was measured in all patients receiving digoxin (Lanacrist, Draco) in a well-defined low density population area in Sweden. The number of treated patients (n=75) corresponded to 3 % of the population. The average prescribed daily dose of digoxin was 0.25 mg, and the mean plasma concentration (n=74) was 0.85 (S.D. 0.52) ng/ml. Of the concentrations found 3 % were above and 62 % were below the apparent therapeutic range, 1 – 2 ng/ml. The findings were compared with analyses performed in a hospital laboratory (n=300), the majority being inpatients receiving a similar daily dose. In the latter, 22 % had a plasma level above and about 33 % below the apparent therapeutic range. In the former group no difference in plasma digoxin concentration could be demonstrated between patients treated with digoxin (n=34) and those treated with both digoxin and diuretics (n=40). In a group of eight patients plasma digoxin rose significantly after they were informed of the importance of taking their medicine regularly. Poor compliance with prescribed therapy was even documented in patients in cardiac failure.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: prescribing habits ; psychotropics ; drug utilization ; methodology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The prescription of psychotropic drugs at a multidoctor district health centre in northern Sweden in 1973, was analysed by means of problemoriented medical records. Of the 22,000 inhabitants of the district 10,700 consulted the health centre. Psychotropic drugs were prescribed for 11.3% of the patients, corresponding to 5% of the inhabitants of the area. Sixty per cent of the patients received one psychotropic prescription and 90% not more than three. Two-thirds of prescriptions were for women. Hypnotics, sedatives and minor tranquillisers constituted 64% of all prescriptions, major tranquillisers 24% and antidepressants 12%. One fifth of the patients obtained drugs belonging to more than one of the major psychotropic groups during the year. Insomnia, psychoneurosis and depression made up two-thirds of the indications for psychotropic drug therapy. More than thirty different psychotropic drugs were prescribed for the two major indications. There was considerable variation in how the different doctors prescribed drugs for the same indication. Fifty-nine different drug products were prescribed, of which the commonest five constituted more than half of the total number. Individual doctors used from 22 to 38 different psychotropic drugs.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Diabetes ; antidiabetic drugs ; drug utilization ; prescribing habits ; geographical differences ; methodology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a comparison of three European countries Sweden utilized more antidiabetic drugs than Northern Ireland and Norway. Swedish wholesale figures for a quarter of a year used for the comparison were based on “daily doses”/1000 inhabitants/day. In order to validate the Swedish figures, a defined geographical area was investigated in 1972–1973, the island of Gotland with 54000 inhabitants. Antidiabetic drugs distributed on a wholesale basis were compared with those distributed on a prescription basis. Additional information was gathered (interviews, questionnaires, hospital records etc.) from a sample of patients (n=54) and their prescribing doctors (n=37). There was good agreement between the wholesale and prescription figures for oral antidiabetic drugs over a three month period (30.0 vs 29.8 “daily doses”/1000 inhabitants/day), but this did not apply to insulin (5.9 vs 7.2) unless a longer time period was studied. The average daily doses prescribed were higher than the theoretically derived “daily doses”. Combination antidiabetic drug therapy was preseribed for 28% of the patients. Thirteen different oral antidiabetics were issued during the study period, four of which constituted 90% of the total. Phenformin, the second most commonly prescribed oral antidiabetic drug was prescribed by 33 doctors, and metformin was prescribed by only 14 doctors. Few patients were treated with diet alone and few doctors could obtain assistance from a dietician. There was little or no evidence that patients failed to comply with the prescriptions, but by contrast they adhered poorly to written dietary instructions.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Diabetes ; insulin ; sulphonylureas ; biguanides ; drug utilization ; geographical differences
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The consumption of insulin and oral antidiabetic drugs was measured at the gross sales level in Sweden and Norway and at the prescription level in Northern Ireland. “Agreed daily doses” were used as units of comparison, which defined as follows: insulin 40 I.U., tolbutamide 1 g, acetohexamide 500 mg etc. Consumption was expressed as the number of “agreed daily doses” per 1,000 inhabitants per day. This provided a rough estimate of the number of subjects for whom the drug had been prescribed per 1,000 population. The data were collected during the three months April – June 1971. Marked differences in the consumption of antidiabetic drugs were found between the three countries and also between areas within each country. The consumption of insulin was similar in Norway and Northern Ireland (3.5 and 3.9 agreed daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day), but almost twice as high in Sweden. In Norway much lower use was found in certain rural areas. The variation in the consumption of oral antidiabetic drugs was even more marked. Surprisingly, consumption was considerably higher in Sweden (15.8) than in the nearby Norway (7.3), and was even lower in Northern Ireland (4.3). The major use was of sulphonylureas, especially chlorpropamide. Within the countries there was marked regional variation in the choice of individual biguanides and sulphonylureas. The data are discussed in relation to such factors as the incidence of diabetes, the sole use of dietary treatment etc. It is concluded that studies in depth, which link the actual use of drugs by patients to diagnosis, diabetic symptoms and clinical outcome of treatment are necessary in order to explore the reasons behind the marked geographical differences and to define a rational drug policy. However, the methods described in the study may be used for early detection of gross national differences in drug utilization, the further investigation of which may reveal to be of great public health interest.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-051X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A 6-year follow-up study was carried out on 28 patients fitted with removable partial dentures. Prior to the prosthetic treatment all patients were given oral hygiene instruction and periodontal therapy where indicated. The removable partial dentures were carefully planned and designed. During the follow-up period the patients were examined at yearly intervals when remotivation, scalings, conservation and prosthetic adjustments were carried out as required. Patient cooperation was excellent and no significant deterioration of the periodontal status of the remaining teeth could be found, In addition the number of newly registered carious lesions was low. A certain degree of deterioration of occlusion, articulation, stability and clasp retention of the dentures fitted did occur, however.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-3916
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung 28 allgemeinorthopädische Patienten erhielten die Anweisung, zwei konsekutive Tage den ganzen Körper mit Chlorhexidingluconat zu waschen, und zwar vor der Operation im Heim des Patienten. Die Wundstelle wurde außerdem ein drittes Mal gewaschen. Eine bakteriologische Auswertung wurde mittels Kontakt-Platten durchgeführt. Ermittelt wurde dabei eine merkbare Reduzierung der Hautflora einschließlich Staph. aureus. Es konnten keine ungünstigen Nebenwirkungen der Körperwäsche festgestellt werden.
    Notes: Summary Twenty-eight orthopaedic patients were taught to wash their entire bodies with chlorhexidine gluconate on two consecutive days preoperatively, starting in their homes. The operation field was also washed a third time. A bacteriological evaluation was performed using contact plates. A significant reduction of the skin flora, including Staph. aureus, was registered. No adverse side effects of total body-washing were observed.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    European journal of plastic surgery 4 (1978), S. 137-142 
    ISSN: 1435-0130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Skin donor sites dressed with Opsite—an adhesive polyurethane surgical drape, permeable to gases and water vapour only—heal faster and with less pain than those covered with the conventional paraffin gauze dressing. This is largely due to the moist environment which is present under the Opsite drape.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Autoradiography showed that labelled polychlorinated biphenyls with chlorine in positions 2, 41, 5 and hydrogen in positions 3, 31, 6, 61 in the molecule are accumulated in the mouse bronchial mucosa. Further testing of this observation showed that 2, 21, 4, 51-tetrachlorbiphenyl-14C, but not biphenyl-14C, was taken up in the bronchi of mice.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Serotonin was found to inhibit human erythrocyte and electric-eel acetylcholinesterase activities. The serotonin amino group, free of negative charges in its vicinity and its hydroxyl group, were important for the inhibition. Serotonin precursors and several related compounds had little or no effect. Human plasma cholinesterase was also inhibited by serotonin and tryptamine. In contrast to these animal enzymes, the cholinesterase ofPseudomonas aeruginosa was refractory to serotonin and its derivatives under the same experimental conditions.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-9686
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract The rates of storage and release of carbohydrate by the liver are deterined by the plasma concentrations of several bloodborne signals; most important are the concentrations of glucose, and the hormones insulin and glucagon. To understand the complex control relationships of these three signals as they affect the liver, their individual dynamic influences have been determined experimentally, and they have been integrated by means of a computer simulation of the pathways of hepatic glycogen metabolism. The simulation studies have led to specific hypotheses about the biochemical effects of glucose and insulin on the liver. The simulation studies have also led to the conclusion that glucose exerts a rapid moment-to-moment influence on the rate of uptake of glucose by the liver. Insulin, however, by exerting a slower influence on the sensitivity of the liver to glucose, is very effective in “optimizing” the amount of glucogen with the liver stores during food intake. Thus, integrated experimental and simulation studies can lead to a view of a physiological regulating system which does not emerge from either approach used alone.
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