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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Juvenile type diabetes ; muscular exercise ; blood glucose ; ketosis ; free fatty acids ; amino acids ; insulin ; glucagon ; growth hormone ; cortisol
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Metabolic and hormonal effects of muscular exercise were studied in juvenile-type diabetics in relation to the prevailing degree of metabolic control and compared with those in healthy control subjects. Two groups of diabetic patients, one in moderate metabolic control and one in ketosis due to insulin withdrawal, were subjected to a 3 hour bicycle ergometer test of comparable, mild work intensity. In both groups of diabetics the exercise-induced rise in blood lactate was similar, but was significantly higher than in control subjects. Blood alanine levels showed a transient, significant rise in both diabetic groups, but not in controls. Blood concentrations of branch-chained amino acids remained unchanged. In the moderately controlled diabetics, exercise induced a marked fall of blood glucose and increases in blood levels of free fatty acids (FFA), ketone bodies and glucagon, which were comparable to the exercise effects in normal controls. In ketotic diabetics, however, exercise led to an additional rise in blood glucose concentration and to increases in ketone body, glucagon and cortisol levels. Significant correlations were found between the exercise effect on blood glucose and initial blood levels of glucose, FFA, ketone bodies and branch chained amino acids: pre-exercise values of above 325 mg/dl glucose, 1173 μmol/l FFA, 2.13 mmol/l ketone bodies and 0.74 mmol/l branch chained amino acids led to increased blood glucose levels on exercise, whereas below these limits glucose fell during the exercise test. These findings seem to be, at least in part, explained by the hypothesis of a permissive effect of insulin during stimulation of muscle glucose uptake by exercise. The increased circulating levels of glucagon and cortisol during exercise in ketotic diabetics might represent additional hyperglycaemic and, probably more important, lipolytic and ketogenic stimuli. The results suggest that in moderately controlled, non-ketotic diabetics blood glucose falls during exercise; in ketotic, relatively insulin deficient patients, muscular activity has adverse metabolic and hormonal effects: a further increase in blood glucose, plasma glucagon and cortisol and a rapid aggravation of ketosis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Exercise ; tritiated insulin ; subcutaneous insulin injections ; exercise-induced hypoglycaemia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Previous studies in man and pancreatectomized dogs have indicated that alterations of the pharmacokinetics of subcutaneously injected insulin during physical activity may contribute to exercise-induced hypoglycaemia in insulin-treated diabetic patients. We have directly measured the appearance of subcutaneously injected insulin in the circulation and assessed its distribution to different tissues using a recently developed semisynthetic homogeneous [3H]insulin as a tracer. Following subcutaneous injection in rats of [3H]insulin in amounts insufficient to exert significant biological activity in intact animals, circulating levels of exogenous insulin were measured as plasma radioactivity co-migrating with insulin during gel filtration chromatography. Strenuous treadmill running accelerated the mobilization of subcutaneously injected [3H] insulin and resulted in a significant elevation of circulating levels of exogenous insulin early during exercise, followed by decreased levels in the post-exercise period. In addition, exercise induced a redistribution of 3H radioactivity in tissues, mainly increasing that found in skeletal muscle. This direct demonstration of altered pharmacokinetics of subcutaneously injected insulin during exercise provides, at least in part, a mechanism for the exercise-induced hypoglycemia seen following insulin injections in animals and during insulin treatment in man.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Physical training ; glucose tolerance ; skeletal muscle glucose metabolism ; insulin sensitivity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of physical training on glucose tolerance in vivo and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in vitro was investigated in normal rats. Treadmill running for 10 days up to 240 min/day led to a decrease of basal and glucose-stimulated plasma insulin levels without major alterations of the IV glucose tolerance (1 g/kg body weight). Swim training of two weeks' duration, i. e. exercise up to 2×75 min/ day, which did not induce significant changes in body composition, skeletal muscle glycogen levels or citrate synthase activity, resulted in a significant improvement of IV glucose tolerance and substantial reductions of basal and glucose-stimulated plasma insulin levels. Associated with this apparent improvement of insulin sensitivity in vivo, significant increases of the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (+ 55%) and lactate oxidation (+ 78%) in vitro were found on perfusion of the isolated hindquarter of swim-trained animals. It is suggested that mild physical training can improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in normal rats, at least in part, due to an increase of insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle glucose metabolism.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0711
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Tritiated insulin ; subcutaneous insulin injections ; chemical analysis of injection site ; absorption kinetics ; local insulin degradation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The absorption of subcutaneously injected insulin was examined by injecting semisynthetic [3H] insulin in anaesthetized pigs and subsequently analysing the tissue excised from the injection site. Contrary to previously accepted views, a significant proportion of insulin was degraded at the injection site. The disappearance of intact [3H] insulin from the injection site followed a monoexponential function with a half-time of 59 min.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of ornithology 116 (1975), S. 327-333 
    ISSN: 1439-0361
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Organic Magnetic Resonance 8 (1976), S. 170-172 
    ISSN: 0030-4921
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The 13C n.m.r. spectra of four classes of N-aryl sulphur-nitrogen compounds are discussed. The para carbon shieldings of the N-phenyl derivatives reflect the substituents effects of the various nitrogen groups. These show large differences for the four classes of compounds due to differences in the electronic structure of the sulphur-nitrogen bond.
    Additional Material: 4 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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