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  • 1
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    Zürich : Kindler
    Call number: QL45:2/1
    Keywords: Invertebratum
    Pages: 612 p.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bericht über einen Fall von familiärem, inkomplettem, kombiniertem Immundefekt bei einem im Alter von 20 Wochen an einer generalisierten BCG-Tuberkulose verstorbenen Knaben. Dabei fällt eine Diskrepanz zwischen den zunächst normalen peripheren Lymphocytenzahlen und den schweren morphologischen Veränderungen an den lymphoretikulären Organen bei der Obduktion auf (Störung der thymalen Strukturbildung, Fehlen von Lymphocyten im Thymus und in thymusabhängigen Arealen, aber auch in Bursa-Äquivalent-Strukturen). Als mögliche Ursachen des Defektes werden eine partielle primäre Schädigung der Stammzellen und eine sekundäre Störung der Funktionen mit mangelhafter Differenzierung durch die Insuffizienz der primären lymphoiden Organe diskutiert. Das Ausbleiben der Bildung von Epitheloidzellen im Rahmen der tuberkulösen Infektion wird als teilweise Folge einer T-Zell-Insuffizienz gedeutet.
    Notes: Summary A case of hereditary incomplete, combined immunodeficiency is reported. The patient, a 20-week-old boy, suffered from severe, generalized tuberculosis after BCG-vaccination. A conspicuous discrepancy was found between the normal number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and the severe morphological changes in the organs of the lymphoreticular system (deficient development of thymic structures; absence of lymphocytes in the thymus and the thymus-dependent areas of the periphery as well as in the bursa-dependent structures). A partial primary defect of the stem cells and a secondary insufficiency of the functions with incomplete differentiation due to an insufficiency of the primary lymphatic organs are discussed as possible causative factors. The inability to develop epitheloid cells in connection with the tuberculous infection is interpreted in part as a sequence of a T-cell insufficiency.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-234X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The tibial sense organs in the three pairs of legs from two cricket species have been compared, with special emphasis upon the CoS marking technique (Figs. 1 and 2). The main results are as follows: 1. The tibial surfaces directed outward when the leg is in the normal position have a considerably greater density of innervated hairs and bristles than the surfaces on the inner side of the leg. On the forelegs, hairs and bristles surround the tympana (Fig. 4). This arrangement of the sensilla is thought to be associated with the burrowing habit of the crickets. 2. The special cuticular differentiation (tympana, chitinous ridges) and the particular arrangement of the tracheal system in the vicinity of the auditory receptors (apposition of two tracheal tubes which are in direct communication with one another, Figs. 4, 6, and 7) seem to improve the ability of detection of airborne sound and seem to be important in the frequency analysis carried out by the ears. There are no such differentiated regions in the tibiae of the middle and hind legs. 3. On all three pairs of legs each tibia bears a group of 14–15 campaniform sensilla (Fig. 5); the groups have very similar spatial arrangements. Their nearness to the subgenual organ, and the fact that they are incorporated into the tibial cuticle immediately proximal to the crease, indicate that they measure the loading of the tibia. 4. The subgenual organs in all three pairs of legs consist of ca. 25 sense cells each; these, with their accessory structures, are spread out in a fanlike arrangement, and their dendritic processes bend to run in the hemolymph canal (Figs. 8-13). 5. Only in the anterior tibia is there a complete tympanal organ, with a main process consisting of a row of 30–35 sense cells parallel to the long axis of the leg (Fig. 9). Structures homologous to the caudal and frontal processes of the tympanal organ of the anterior tibia, with 25–30 sense cells, are also to be found in the middle and hind tibia (Figs. 11–13). Therefore it is presumably the main process that is chiefly responsible for detection of airborne sound by the forelegs. The sensory apparatus in the middle and hind legs that corresponds to the caudal and frontal branches of the tympanal organ may well mediate the residual sensitivity to airborne sound which remains after ablation of the tympanal organs (cf. Nocke, 1972; E. Schuhmacher, 1975). 6. The paths followed by the sensory axons from the tibial organs described are almost identical in the three thoracic segments. The subgenual nerve (SGN, Fig. 9) and the tympanal nerve (TN, Fig. 9) each also contain axons of the campaniform sensilla; the tympanal nerve includes, in addition, axons of the sensory cells in the subgenual organ.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-234X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Cobalt sulfide (CoS) staining, via axonal filling, was used to reveal the central projections of fibers of the tympanal nerves in the cricket prothoracic ganglion, as well as those of serially homonymous nerves in the mesothoracic and metathoracic ganglia. The main results are: 1. The branch of the anterior leg nerve termed the tympanal nerve (TB in Fig. 2) comprises a few motor fibers and many sensory axons, as do serially homonymous nerves in the two other thoracic segments. The sensory axons are those of sense cells in the tympanal organ (or the serially homonymous parts of the meso and metathoracic segments), the subgenual organ, the campaniform sensilla, and the tibial sensory hairs (Eibl, 1978). 2. On the basis of their branching and projections in the three thoracic ganglia, the sensory fibers of nerve TB can be classified into five types (Figs. 3–7). With respect to function, those of Type 5 can be regarded as auditory fibers (Fig. 10). They project only to the crescent-shaped region (Fig. 8), which represents the auditory neuropile in the strict sense, and are tuned to the carrier frequency of the calling song (Fig. 10B). It is characteristic of Types 1 to 4 that the fibers branch immediately after entering the ganglion (Figs. 3–6); typically, these branches run dorsally and may overlap with the lateral projections from the motor neuropile. In addition, the fibers of Types 2 to 4 project into the rostral and caudal margins of the auditory crescent (Figs. 4–6). 3. The similarity among the three thoracic ganglia with respect to sensory fiber types and projections (Fig. 11) suggests that serially homonymous sensory structures found in each of the leg-bearing segments resemble one another in their sensory projection areas and thus in their connectivity with other neural subsystems within the three thoracic ganglia. That ‘typical auditory nerve fibers’ occur in the meso and metathoracic segments, projecting exclusively to the crescent (Figs. 7 and 11), is anatomical evidence that auditory function need not be restricted to the first thoracic segment. 4. The stained leg motoneurons (Fig. 12), with axons that innervate the femur muscles, are distinguished by a dendritic field that must be assigned to the ventral part of the so-called sensorimotor integration zone (Altman, 1976). These fields are of lesser extent than, for example, those of the flight and singing motoneurons of meso and metathorax. 5. All the sensory and motor elements marked with CoS are bilateral and arranged with approximately mirror-image symmetry. Their central projections are restricted entirely to the ipsilateral half of the ganglion (Fig. 13).
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Humoral immunodeficiency ; agglutinins to bacterial antigens ; heteroagglutinins ; serum immunoglobulin concentration ; suspectibility to infections ; HLA gene complex
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Humoral immunity to bacterial antigens was tested in 49 tissue typed patients with juvenile onset diabetes mellitus (JOD) and in 50 healthy controls. The number of patients with agglutinins to E. coli and staphyloccoci was significantly lower compared to controls (p〈0.001, p〈0.01 respectively). Missing antibody formation to pertussis and diphtheria toxoid could also be detected in a higher percentage of JOD patients than of controls (p 〈 0.05; p ≃ 0.05, respectively). By contrast heteroagglutinins to sheep and rabbit erythrocytes were found in similiar proportion in both groups and the values of immunoglobulin serum concentrations showed no difference between patients and controls. In addition no correlation between antibody formation and genes of the HLA complex was found. It is suggested that the severely reduced agglutinin formation to bacterial antigens might be partly responsible for susceptibility to bacterial infections in juvenile diabetics.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1520-4995
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Idiopathic Addison's disease ; Adrenal microsomes ; Migration inhibition test ; Adrenal antibodies ; Idiopathische Nebennierenrindeninsuffizienz ; Nebennieren-Mikrosomen ; Migrationshemmtest ; Nebennierenrinden-Antikörper
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die celluläre (mittels Migrations-inhibitionstest, MT) und humorale (mittels Immunfluorescenztechnik) Immunreaktion gegen Nebennieren-Antigene wurde bei 19 Patienten mit idiopathischer Nebennierenrindeninsuffizienz (INI) und 19 Kontrollpersonen untersucht. Bei 12 Patienten konnte eine ausgeprägte Hemmung der Migration mononuclearer Zellen (MM) in Gegenwart von NN-Mikrosomen beobachtet werden; dagegen lag bei 18 der 19 Kontrollpersonen die MM im Normbereich. Zusätzlich konnten bei 11 (53%) der Patienten Nebennierenrinden-Antikörper (NNR-AK) festgestellt werden. In einer weiteren Untersuchungsreihe wurden NN-Mikrosomen mit NNR-AK vorinkubiert, im MT eingesetzt und die erhaltenen Migrationsindices mit denen durch NN-Mikrosomen allein erzielten verglichen. Bei 6 der 10 NNR-AK positiven Patienten konnte eine Hemmung der MM mit NN-Mikrosomen durch spezifische AK blockiert werden. Bei den NNR-AK negativen Patienten war kein einheitlicher Trend zu einer negativen oder positiven Beeinflussung der MM nachweisbar. Eine Blockierung der cellulären Immunreaktion durch spezifische Antikörper in diesem System erscheint wahrscheinlich. Mögliche Mechanismen, die dazu führen könnten, sowie die Bedeutung der NNR-AK werden diskutiert.
    Notes: Summary In 19 patients with idiopathic adrenal insufficiency and in 19 controls, cellular (as measured by the migration inhibition test) and humoral (by means of immunofluorescence) immune reaction to adrenal antigens were investigated. Significant inhibition of migration was observed in 12 patients with adrenal microsomes; migration of mononuclear cells was however within normal range in 18 out of 19 controls. Adrenal antibodies could be detected in 11 (53%) of the patients. In a further series of investigations adrenal microsomes have been preincubated with specific antibody and used in migration inhibition tests. The migration indices observed with microsomes were compared to those obtained with microsomes preincubated with adrenal antibody. Migration inhibition with microsomes could be blocked by antibody in almost all antibody-positive patients. No uniform trend on the migration of mononuclear cells was found in the antibody-negative patients. A blocking of the cellular immune reaction by specific antibody seems likely. Possible mechanisms which could lead to such phenomena as well as the biologic significance of adrenal antibodies are discussed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Tetanus Antitoxins ; Mumps meningitis ; Antibody distribution ; Antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid ; Tetanus-Antitoxin ; Mumpsmeningitis ; Antikörperverteilung ; Antikörper im Liquor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Bei 58 Kindern, 35 Knaben und 23 Mädchen, die an viralen Meningitiden erkrankt waren, wurden in Serum und Liquor Tetanus-Antitoxine bestimmt. Ferner wurden die Immunglobuline IgG, IgA und IgM untersucht. Im Liquor erfolgte noch die Bestimmung von Gesamteiweiß und Zellzahl. Das Auftreten von Tetanus-Antitoxinen im Liquor scheint einerseits von den Absolutwerten der Antitoxine im Serum abzuhängen, aber auch vom jeweiligen Anteil der Tetanus-Antitoxine am IgG Gehalt des Serums. Dabei zeigte sich, daß dieses Verhältnis in Serum und Liquor in gleichen Größenordnungen liegt. Der Nachweis von Tetanus-Antitoxin im Liquor bei Virusmeningitis weist darauf hin, daß ein rein qualitativer Antikörpernachweis im Liquor alleine keine diagnostische Aussagekraft hat, sondern diese möglicherweise erst durch quantitative Vergleiche mit den Antitoxinwerten und Immunglobulinen in Serum und Liquor erhält.
    Notes: Summary Tetanus antitoxins were measured in serum and cerebro spinal fluid from 58 children — 35 boys and 23 girls — with viral meningitis. The concentrations of IgG, IgA and IgM were also determined. The appearance of tetanus antitoxins in cerebral spinal fluid depends on absolute antitoxin levels in serum as well as on the antitoxin/IgG ratio. Antitoxin/IgG ratios in serum and cerebro spinal fluid were in the same order of magnitude. Detection of tetanus antitoxins in the cerebral spinal fluid of children with viral meningitis shows clearly that antibody found in cerebral spinal fluid is not an absolute proof of a certain disease. The results further indicate that local production of IgG antibody cannot be postulated by detecting certain antibodies in the CSF. It is also necessary to prove that antibody/globulin ratios are of significantly different magnitude in serum and CFS.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum polyisoprenylphosphomannosides are substrates for membrane bound mannosyltransferases; the isolated and purified isoprenyl derivatives transfer mannose to protein in vitro in presence of membrane fractions. The biosynthesis of the mannolipids as well as the biosynthesis of a glucose containing cerebroside, which becomes synthesized in an early stage of the cell development proceeds under control of the cell differentiation. The isolation procedure and the properties of the glycolipids are described, and their functions for the cellular development are discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Haemolytic complement activity was measured in a long-term study in patients on haemodialysis. Four of the patients studied developed hepatitis B while under investigation. In all four patients a fall in haemolytic complement activity was observed one to three months before hepatitis B surface antigen was detected in the serum. The fall in complement activity also occurred prior to a rise in transaminase. The maximum fall averaged 27%.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Aufgrund einer Komplementlangzeitstudie bei chronisch dialysierten Patienten konnte CH 50 im Serum vor Manifestwerden einer Hepatitis-B-Infektion an Hand von vier Dialysepatienten verfolgt werden. Dabei trat bei allen vier Patienten ein mäßig stark ausgeprägter Komplementabfall ein bis drei Monate vor dem erstmaligen serologischen Nachweis von Hepatitis-B-Surface-Antigen auf. Die Komplementdepression lag jeweils zeitlich auch vor dem Transaminaseanstieg. Der maximale Abfall der Komplementaktivität betrug im Durchschnitt 27%.
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