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  • 1
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Applied crystallography online 11 (1978), S. 514-519 
    ISSN: 1600-5767
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: The use of the polymers tagged with heavy atoms in random positions along the chains (randomly tagged polymers) in small-angle X-ray scattering is proposed as a new method for measuring the chain conformations in concentrated solutions and in bulk polymers. The experimentally determined excess scattering from the tagged chains dispersed in the system is shown to be proportional to the scattering function of the hypothetical chains that have no tags but have the conformation of the tagged chains when the heavy atoms have sufficiently large scattering power. It has been experimentally verified that the effect of the tags on the chain conformation can be eliminated by the extrapolation of the apparent values, measured for a series of tagged polymers with various tag content, to zero tag content. The radii of gyration of the polystyrene chains (M = 1.1 × 105) in the bulk and in concentrated solutions in a good solvent and a θ-solvent have been determined. The chain dimension in a good solvent (toluene at 25°C) decreases rapidly first and then gradually approaches the unperturbed dimension with increasing polymer concentration. The dimension in a θ-solvent (trans-decalin at 21.2°C) is independent of the polymer concentration. The conformation of the polystyrene chains in the bulk was found to be a Gaussian coil.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Cancer cells ; Binding structures ; Aggregation factor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Two tumor cell-aggregation factors of glycoprotein nature, separated from rat ascites hepatoma AH136B cells (forming cell islands in vivo), had different antigenicity; one was not absorbed by immunoadsorbent chromatography with anti-rat serum antibody and the other was. The unabsorbed factor induced aggregation (as shown in the form of simple apposition) of rat ascites hepatoma AH109A cells (present as a free form in vivo) and cell adhesiveness characterized by well-defined tripartite junctional complexes, including intermediate junctions, desmosomes, and tight junctions. In contrast, the absorbed factor from AH136B cells, AH109A cells or normal rat serum aggregated AH109A cells but failed to develop the junctional complexes; only simple apposition was observed. AH109A cells themselves contained the absorbed factor but not the unabsorbed factor. AH136B cells proliferating in the skin developed the junctional complexes, while AH109A cells proliferating in the skin did not from any junctional complexes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Summary It was shown that the conformation of a single polymer chain in concentrated solutions and in undiluted state can be estimated from the small-angle X-ray scattering of “randomly tagged polymer” mixed in the systems. The randomly tagged polymer means the polymer containing heavy atoms at randomly selected positions along the molecule. The excess scattering of the tagged polymer is obtained by subtracting the scattering of the untagged polymer solution (or bulk) from that of the mixture solution (or bulk) containing the tagged and untagged polymers. The excess scattering obtained in this way contains the contributions of some undesirable “cross terms” of the scattering amplitude. The method for the experimental evaluation of these terms and the conditions under which these terms are negligible are discussed. It was found that the cross terms can be neglected when the contrast in scattering power between the tagged and untagged scattering units is sufficiently large, and the number of the tags per tagged molecule is not so small. The distribution of the tags in the tagged molecules was also taken into consideration. By averaging the theoretical scattered intensity over all possible positions of the tags, it was found that the excess scattering is practically proportional to the scattering function of the untagged polymer when the number of the tags per tagged molecule is not so small. Experimental verification of this theory was shown. It was also shown experimentally that the conformational change, which may be caused by the effect of the tags, can be eliminated by the extrapolation of the results obtained for a series of tagged polymers with various tag contents to zero tag content.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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