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  • 1975-1979  (10)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Approximately 30 million pounds of mullet are harvested annually in Florida. However, mullet has only limited economic value compared to other commercially valuable fish species which in part is due to the poor stability of the flesh during storage. The instability of mullet flesh during storage has been attributed mainly to the development of oxidative rancidity. The purpose of this study was to retard rancidity development in the stored mullet fillets by chemical and physical treatments. The mullet fillets were dipped for 1 min in the following antioxidant solution, mono-tertiarybutylbydroquinone (TBHQ), disodium ethylene-diaminetetraacetate (Na2EDTA) and ascorbic acid, singularly or in various combinations. Each antioxidant and their combinations retarded rancidity development in the stored mullet fillets. The chemcial tests (peroxide value and TBA number) indicated that ascorbic acid alone or in combination with TBHQ or Na2 EDTA was more effective than other antioxidant treatments. Vacuum packaging in combination with anti-oxidants improved rancidity control over antioxidant treatments alone. Based on the chemical measurements rancidity development is retarded best by treatment with the antioxidants ascorbic acid and/or TBHQ in combination with vacuum-packaging.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 42 (1977), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Salting is a processing treatment used either to provide a salty flavor or to impart storage stability by decreasing water activity. Optimum salt content can enhance overall flavor acceptability and is a major factor in safe preservation of smoked fish. In this study, rate of salt penetration into fresh or frozen and then thawed fish muscle was studied by dipping mullet fillets in brine. Salt penetration curves resemble a first order change [X = C(l - e−kt)]. Initial salt penetration rate (g salt/g sample/ min) and rate constant (min−1) increased respectively from 0.006 and 0.018 for fresh fish to 0.014 and 0.029 after freezing (frozen for 1 wk), then decreased to 0.011 and 0.025 after 3 wk of frozen storage, and leveled off at 0.009 and 0.018 from 5–9 wk of storage. The change in salt penetration rates closely followed changes in extractable actomyosin in muscle, indicating a dependence of the change on the degree of denaturation of fish muscle proteins. The effects of brine concentration and frozen storage on water transfer were also studied. Water migrated from the brine into the flesh if fresh mullet fillets were dipped in brine at concentrations up to 15%. When the brine concentration was 20% or higher, the water migated from fish muscle to the brine. However, after 2 months frozen storage, fish muscle gained water if dipped in brine of 20% or below and lost water when the brine was 25% or higher.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Lean lamb muscle tissue from the longissimus and semitendinosus was removed from intact chilled carcasses at 0, 1, 4, 7 and 9 days postmortem. Following separation of the lipids by silicic acid column chromatography, fatty acid methyl esters of the nonpolar, phospho- and glycolipid fractions were identified by gas chromatography. Lamb longissimus had significantly (P 〈 0.05) more nonpolar lipid percentage than the semitendinosus, while phospho- and glycolipid content was similar (P 〉 0.05). Analysis of variance of the data based on grams fatty acid per 100g tissue resulted in more significant differences between muscles and storage periods than when the data were analyzed on a percent of total fatty acids.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 44 (1979), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A storage study including microbiological assay, chemical determination of rancidity, and sensory evaluation was performed on a sausage-type product developed from minced mullet. Eight treatments were tested to determine the effect of a liquid smoke flavoring, a textured soy flour, and two methods of flesh recovery (hand filleted or mechanically deboned flesh). Results indicated a shelf-life of approximately 2 wk at 2°C with no preservatives other than the liquid smoke flavoring (0.5%) and sodium nitrite (100 ppm). The limiting factor was the development of off-flavors which correlated to total bacterial counts of approximately 4.8 × 105 APC/g.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 42 (1977), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The dark flesh of mullet (Mugil cephalus) was compared with beef muscle for total iron, total hemoprotein, and total nonheme iron. Mullet dark flesh contained 57.3 ppm iron, over twice the amount in beef, 26.0 ppm. Total possible nonheme iron content of mullet dark flesh ranged from 56–75%, compared to 11–29% for beef. In a linoleate emulsion model system, mullet dark flesh homogenate was analyzed for heme and nonheme iron activity as lipid oxidation catalysts. Addition of ascorbic acid, EDTA, and cyanide, at different pH levels, indicated the nature of the catalyses. Of the additives, cyanide yielded the strongest inhibition on a molar basis. Based on the criteria of other researchers, these data suggest that heme iron is the major catalyst of lipid oxidation in mullet flesh. The rates of O2 uptake by mullet dark flesh homogenate and by Fe/EDTA increased with increasing acidity, rather than exhibiting a previously reported peak at pH 5.5. The latter appears to be a phenomenon of limited occurrence rather than a general test criteria. In light of this finding, the nature and nomenclature of biological nonheme iron is discussed.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 43 (1978), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The influence of two periods of iced storage followed by up to 12 months frozen storage on development of free fatty acid and oxidative rancidity was studied. Mullet held in the round for 1 day and 7 days iced storage were processed into various forms of mullet flesh: mullet in the round, boneless skin-on and skin-off fillets with and without anti-oxidant treatment and were then stored at -18°C. Generally, higher free fatty acid levels and less lipid oxidation (TBA and peroxide value) were observed in frozen mullet fillets (with and without skin) with a longer period of iced storage, except for the frozen skin-on fillets which showed no significant difference in oxidation between the two periods of iced storage. However- frozen, antioxidant-treated (immersed, in 0.25% TBHQ + 2% ascorbic acid) fillets with the longer period of iced storage had less free fatty acid production than the fillets with the shorter period of iced storage. Oxidative rancidity followed the same trend as free fatty acid development in the skin-off fillets, but was not significantly affected by the duration of iced storage in the skin-on fillets. In mullet frozen in the round after the two different periods of iced storage, the trend of free fatty acid production was similar to the development of oxidative rancidity. Both free fatty acid and oxidative rancidity were higher in the frozen sample with 7 days iced storage than the samples with 1 day iced storage.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 43 (1978), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Various concentrations of ascorbic acid were mixed with light color, dark color and mixed (ground fillet) mullet flesh and stored at 2°C. Ascorbic acid degradation in dark or mixed flesh followed fist order kinetics. Zero order kinetics for ascorbic acid degradation was demonstrated in light color flesh. In light color flesh, ascorbic acid acted as an antioxidant with initial concentrations of 50 ppm and 500 ppm or higher over an 11-day storage period but acted as a prooxidant at 100 ppm between 4 and 11 days storage. Ascorbic acid showed an antioxidant effect in dark color flesh with initial concentration at 1000 ppm or higher over 9 days storage, but acted as a prooxidant with initial concentration of 50, 100 and 500 ppm after 3, 3.5 and 9 days storage, respectively. The antioxidant to prooxidant shift was observed in the mixed flesh at an added ascorbic acid concentration of 2000 ppm stored for 5 days. A hypothesis to explain these observations is presented.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Total lipids and fatty acids of neutral lipid in boneless mullet fillets were studied. The mullet harvested between September and November had the highest lipid content. Samples were obtained from four locations on the Florida Coast. At these locations the highest total lipid contents were in the following order: Pine Island 〉 Oakhill 〉 Cedar Key 〉 Port St. Joe. Mullet harvested at Pine Island had the highest ratio of odd chain fatty acids to total fatty acids in neutral lipid fraction, ranging from 18.4–25.8; the odd chain fatty acids of other locations were lower than 20%. Generally, the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of mullet is highest between August and October.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 41 (1976), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The extent of protein-protein interactions in actomyosin solutions was measured as a change in light scattering absorbance of a solution undergoing change. The extent of the reaction registered as an increase in light scattering absorbance indicating an increase in the size of the macromolecules. In treatments where the extent of protein-protein interaction was extensive, film formation and/or precipitation of the macromolecules occurred. At constant protein concentration the kinetics of the reaction was dependent upon temperature, pH and the type of actomyosin used. In general, the rate and maximum extent of change increased with increasing temperatures and decreasing pH. Below 40° C more change was generally observed in beef actomyosin solution compared to mackerel at the same temperature and pH. However, at higher temperatures, mackerel actomyosin often shows more change than beef under the same conditions. The shapes of the reaction curves were such that the slope of the steepest line that can be drawn from the origin to tangent the curve at the region where the change starts to taper off (the characteristic slope), was a good index of the rate of change and the maximum extent of interaction attained. Arrhenius-type plots of the characteristic slopes showed three possible mechanisms of change predominating within certain temperature ranges, as indicated by well-defined inflections in the curves, reflecting varying activation energies for the reactions. The three temperature zones are: below 40°C; between 40 and 60° C; and above 60° C. Below 40° C the rate and maximum extent of protein-protein interaction is very strongly temperature dependent.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 40 (1975), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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